PSYCH 1X03 Study Guide - Erogenous Zone, Personal Unconscious, Philip Zimbardo

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4 Feb 2013
Levels of Analysis 12/9/2012 12:13:00 PM
The History of Psychology
psychology is based on psyche meaning soul. 18th Century it used to
describe the study of the mind.
Roots in philosophy and physiology
Rene Descartes - mind controlled the movements of the mechanical body,
receiving information about the outside world through the sense organs.
Johannes Muller - messages transmitted by nerves were coded as electrical
Wilhem Wundt - first formal psychology lab at University of Lepzig. North
America was by Stanley Hall - APA (America Psychological Association)
largest organization
Structuralism: believed that psychology should focus on the elements of
conscious thought and perception. Goal was to reduce conscious. Their data
was collected using introspection in which experiments trained subjects to
carefully observe and report their own experiences. Research focused on
visual, auditory, touch and perceptions
Modern Developments
William James - functionalism: focused on what conscious thoughts were for,
rather than of what they were made
Charles Darwin (Functionalist) theory of natural selection - any evolved
characteristics had to be something that helped the species to adapt to its
Functionalists were more interested in observing consciousness in the enviro
and situations for which it had presumably evolved to navigate.
Functionalists introduced use of tests and questionnaires to collect data on
topics of interest **no way to verify accuracy of data collected by
Structuralists were guilty if reductionism (breaking a problem into
successively smaller and smaller pieces - losing sight to big questions)
Gestalt school suggested that psychology should be the study of perception
and problem solving. They introduced the principle of totality (any conscious
experience must simultaneously take into account mental and physical
aspects) and principle of psychophysical isomorphism (relation b/w
conscious experience and physical events occurring in the brain and central
nervous system
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Gestalt put an end to any serious interest in structuralism
Ivan Pavlov - involuntary learning in dogs (would learn to salivate to a
previously neutral stimulus.
Watson: psychology should be the study of behaviour.
Behaviourists stated that internal mental events were not objectively
observable. Psychology should concern itself with behaviour which is
objectively observable
Anything happening inside someone‟s head was unobservable = black box
Nature Vs Nurture (Watson) - nature does not matter and everything of
importance is determined experience. We must consider both nature and
nurture and how these influences interact. (take any kid and make them
anything he selects)
BF Skinner = leading figure in behaviourism. We could learn everything that
we needed to know about an organism by studying its behaviour without a
need to appeal to internal mental events. Any behaviour could be explained
from enviro
Sigmund Freud: trained neurologist. Psychoanalysis (the unconscious). He
suggested that a large portion of our internal mental world was inaccessible
to our conscious awareness.
Repression was a way for the conscious mind to defend itself against trauma
and conflict. Best treatment is to seek out the underlying unconscious
material at the root. *For psychoanalyst psychology is the study of
unconscious conflict and motivation
Recent Revolutions
Opening the black box - cognitive revolution
Mental tasks such as memory, attention, categorization and decision-making
are the focus of cognitive psychology. Sept 11 1956 Massachusetts institute
of technology hosted a conference about mental processes
Reasonable inferences about internal mental states and events was
necessary in order to fully explain much of human behaviour
Neuroimaging - connection b/w mind and brain
Carl Rogers: (humanist psychology) believed that the human self-concept or
internal self-representation was central to understanding human behaviour.
He suggested that the mental self-portrait was a characteristic not shared by
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other species and work done by behaviourists was irrelevant to human
Humanists argued that the goal of therapy should be providing a relaxed
enviro in which the client would direct the course of the interaction.
Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology
Modern psychology brings to study the human thought and behaviour
Psychological analysis: state our questions and look for our answers in terms
of mental events taking place in our subjects. Make reasonable inferences
about mental events that produce the behaviour being measured.
Biological analysis: try to understand human thinking and behaviour by
examining the underlying physiological activity. (biological point of view).
We can develop and use animal models to make useful inferences about
human biological functioning. MRI enhanced our ability to understand the
biological roots of thought and behaviours
Environmental analysis: enviro stimuli can influence behaviour (emphasis is
placed on the strength of the social enviro)
Multiple Persepectives
Diagnostic: met diagnostic criteria for psychological disorders
Behaviourist: identify and control enviro stimuli
Psychodynamic: identify and examine unconscious conflict and tension
Cognitive: explore thought patterns and processes
Biological: effect within the brain and mechanisms
Development: investigate the role of genetic predisposition and enviro
influences at critical periods of development
Socio-cultural: social and cultural background
Research vs clinical: researchers work toward knowledge acquisition and
clinicians treat thru therapeutic practices
Basic and Applied Research
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