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PSYCH 2AP3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Burning Sensations, 5-Ht1A Receptor, Behaviour Therapy


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2AP3
Professor
Richard B Day
Study Guide
Final

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Abnormal Psychology
Introduction
Criteria of Abnormality
i. Statistical Criterion: extreme deviations from statistical norm – too far or below norm
ii. Sociocultural Criterion: pathological – abnormal – unacceptable violations of social or
cultural expectations – cultural standards change across time and place
iii. Impairment Criterion (dysfunction): symptoms impair social, occupational or other
domains of functioning
iv. Personal Distress Criterion: doing fine in life but bothered but thoughts – symptoms
cause significant concern for individual
- Normally a combination of criteria used
- No clear line between normalcy and disorder – subjective label – not clear between
disorder
Model of Psychopathy – Causes
i. Medical (biomedical) model: abnormality caused by physical problems in the brain –
began with relationship between syphilis and mental symptoms – basis for
pharmacological and physical treatments – physical disorders may lead to mental
disorder
ii. Psychodynamic model: abnormal thoughts, behaviours, caused by unconscious conflict –
same process in normalcy and abnormality – nothing is “broken” – treatment brings
conflict into consciousness
iii. Behavioural model: abnormal behaviours are the disorder – not symptoms of something
inside – abnormal behaviour acquired by learning, then generalized inappropriately –
treatment changes reward conditioned to produce extinction or relearning
iv. Sociocultural Model: abnormality results from social pressure – poverty, unemployment
etc. – higher rates of mental disorders at low socioeconomic levels – treat by changing
external conditions
v. Cognitive model: abnormality results from maladaptive ways of thinking, interpreting –
treat by changing ways of thinking through practice and reward – how to understand and
interpret what happens to you – most popular and successful non-medical treatment
History of the DSM
1952 – DSM-I – based on ICD-6 – bias toward psychodynamic interpretation – 106 categories in
130 pages
1968 – DSM-II – reduced psychodynamic bias – neuroses vs. psychoses – 182 categories in 134
pages
1980 – DSM-III – no psychodynamic bias – more compatible with ICD – 265 categories in 494
pages
1987 – DSM-III-R – some categories dropped and added – 250 categories I 567 pages
1994 – DSM –IV – fewer differences with ICD-10 (1992) -297 categories in 886 pages

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2000 – DSM-IV-TR – no change in categories, diagnostic criteria – descriptive text updated –
297 categories in 940 pages
2013 – DSM-5 – adds and drops categories – 300 categories in 900+ pages
- Categories are not organized by causes – not many causes actually known – organized by
symptoms – given same diagnoses even if different causes – label by symptom
- Normalcy depends on distress or disturbance that is subjective to the clinician
- DSM-% is a diagnostic labels/categories to describe and classify presenting problems –
identifies dysfunction based on personal distress, impaired functioning or increased risk
of impaired functioning – helps select treatment known to be effective on certain
symptoms – facilitates communication between clinicians and researchers
Criticism
- Assume similar symptoms = similar disorder with same cause
- Treats disorders as discrete entities, not as points on a continuum  except autism is now a
spectrum
- Criteria leads to “fads” in diagnosis – leads to over diagnosis __> medicalizing normal
behaviour – benefit drug companies
- Labeling biases all subsequent diagnosis and treatment – never lose the label
- No known relationship between DSM categories and causes of disorders
- The comorbidity problem – if you meet the criteria for one disorder you will probably
meet the criteria for another
- The ‘not otherwise specified problem – most common label in many categories – do not
have a proper category
- Straddled category problem – resemble two but do not meet criteria for either
- Inclusion of symptoms that do not seem like “mental disorders”
Interpreting DSM Categories
- Mental disorders does not mean symptoms are ‘mental as distant from physical
- Does not identify a disease entity  same symptoms may have different causes – same
category for people with different symptoms
- No clear boundaries between disorders – no clear boundary between disorder and no
disorder
- Must be used with cultural sensitivity
Diathesis – Stress Model
- 2 necessary conditions – neither is sufficient by itself
1. Diathesis – predisposition – genes – structure – chemistry (brain)
2. Stress – high level – any stress – personal, employment, relationship
- Both lead to a disorder
Susceptibility to Environmental Variation

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- Range of reactivity to environmental conditions – low nothing happens – high = disorder
when environment is bad
- If environment is above par things get better than normal – optimal functioning,
creativity, etc.
- Gene variants make us positively success and greater then average
Epidemiology – pattern which disorder appears in population
- Incidence – how many new cases in some time period
- Prevalence – how many existing cases in some time period
- Point prevalence – how many cases now – at this moment
- Annual prevalence – how many cases in past year
- Lifetime prevalence – how many people have it during their lives
Gene Effects
- Additive effects – build upon each other – show up regardless
- Non-additive – recessive vs. dominant – only one shows up
- Epistatic effects – presence depends on the presence of another gene in genome
- Epigenetic effects – chemical markers presence shuts gene  passed onto kids
- Concordance rate – sharing between two people of a phenotype
- Copy Number Variation (CNVs) – areas of genome are duplicated – pieces of genome
deleted (deletion) – differences in number of copies may be related to symptoms
Neurodevelopmental Disorder: ADHD
- Originally called disorder first developed in childhood in DSM-IV
- First described in 1902 by Dr.Still, English physician
- Most researched of all childhood disorders
3 Subcategories
- ADHD – predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI)
- ADHD – predominantly hyperactive and impulsive (ADHD-PHI)
- ADHD – combined type (ADHD-C)
DSM-5 Criteria for ADHD-PI
6 of these 9 for at least 6 months: (“often”)
- Fails to give close attention to details or make careless mistakes
- Has difficulty sustaining attention in work or play
- Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
- Does not follow through on instructions; fails to finish work
- Has difficulty organizing tasks or activities
- Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
- Dislikes or avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort
- Loses things necessary for tasks or activities
- Often forgetful in daily life
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