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Religious Studies
Stephen Westerholm

Tutorial 5: Crucifixion Weekly Questions 1) In what sense according to Koester is Jesus’ death seen as a sacrifice for sin in John’s gospel? - Sin is unbelief so by dying he overcame and defeat unbelief and began our relationship with him - Sin looks more like alienation than breaking the law - Jesus atoned for our unbelief - John emphasizes on the relationship which is not as much restored as enacted and started - Non-substitutionary atonement – Jesus work is completing God’s work to do away with alienation and separateness - Sending out the ruler of the world, same language as an exorcism - John 1:29 “Here is the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!” (sin = unbelief) - Passover lamb is a sign of deliverance more than sacrifice 2) In what sense is Jesus’ death a revelation of divine glory? - God is glorified as he is revealed to humanity - Jesus is glorified by finishing his work on earth – unique death saying “ It is finished” - Cross is a place where Jesus is lifted up – ironic dual meaning (glorification and cross) o Exaltation lifted up and shameful death by crucifixion lifted up - Movement from earth to heaven brings Jesus’ glory to heaven to allow humanity to come into God’s presence - Death isn’t the end – movement towards resurrection - John has a sense of resurrection and a post-Easter perspective - Sense that Jesus does go up to heaven and allows for those who believe to do so themselves 3) What is the basis of resurrection faith of Jesus’ disciples? - Jesus uniquely calls them - Nobody believes when they see the grave closed - They see an empty tomb and believe it must have been robbed or something else - What it takes for a real resurrection faith – Jesus calls them by name and is present with them with a relationship (relationship theme) - Shepherd must call his sheep which Jesus mentions in John 10:3-4 4) What is the basis of resurrection faith of later generations of believers? - Encounters with Jesus but not literally - Ongoing work of Jesus through the holy spirit – the one that will come after him and continue his work - Disciples are expected to continue his work after Crucifixion - Symbol of the cross in churches desensitizes us and emphasizes certain aspects while ignoring others Josephus, Judean Antiquities 12.253­56 (I) - “they were whipped with rods and their bodies were torn to pieces, and were crucified while they were still alive and breathed: they also strangled those women and their sons whom they had circumcised, as the king had appointed, hanging their sons about their necks as they wre upon the crosses.” - Crucifixion is a reminder to others not to do what this person did by killing them in this horrendous way - Antiacus Epiphonus?.. desecrated the temple, tried to put up an idol if Zeus, tried to keep people from circumcising their sons.. - Crucifixion was a very shameful painful way of dying – worst way to die 4 QpNah 3­4 I 4­7 (Dead Sea Scrolls) - These texts take the Hebrew Bible and try to interpret it in a way to speak to their time - “hanged living men from the tree, committing an atrocity which had not been committed in Israel since ancient times, for it is horrible for the one hanged alive from the tree” - Often when people did something utterly horrible or against the Roman crown itself - A sign of powerlessness, while still living attached to a tree and they can’t get down - Die a horrible excruciating death in front of everyone  powerlessness - Crucifixion = product of human sin and unbelief - Brought about by demonic action – eg. Judas had Satan come into him, very much an atta
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