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Canadian Adolescents Notes for Exam.docx

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Social Sciences
Geraldine Voros

Invulnerables aka The Super Adolescent (slide 17) Seem to succeed easily Have 5 characteristic types: Social Competence Comfortable in own skin At ease with people May not hang with a lot of people but they are hard not to like (They can move seamlessly among peers within their age and other age cohorts whether engaging children, building repertoire with adults and the elderly) Feels equally comfortable and accepted across generations Impression Management User-friendly They really engage when with others When dealing with adults – they have respect for them and see them as a source of knowledge and wisdom. They use adults as a resource They want to be informed AnApprenticeship with Pride  they like to be with adults and want to learn everything they can (and they don’t have an attitude) They are genuine/authentic Self Confidence Self-efficacy  they have a sense of their ability to deal with any situation They never give up  they have the ability to get accomplished what they want to They see problems as challenges Patient and persevering (good coping skills) If life hands them a lemon, they make lemonade Willing to find a resolution to every situation Independence Not easily swayed They like to find a place of privacy and peace  they are comfortable alone and they like to have the time to reflect The world health organization says that most people have trouble being alone They can create an environment suitable to their needs and interests; they can facilitate themselves forward quite easily Achievement They get the work done Organized and able to prioritize Achievers – Good grades They are creative and have original approaches to things They are often children who have a very intense interest in things at a very young age Usually have the most success of the Invulnerables Adolescence: Power & Control (slide 18) Friends are the most important to adolescents, so how do they build these relationships in their lives? How do they contextualize themselves in these years? Anticipated Identity: What do you think is going to happen to you? Who will you become? Study by Horner concluded (or at least suggested) Men have a better outlook of success than women (they are more optimistic about their futures than women are) Women tend to be more cautious, fearful, more likely to marry what we want – rather than be what we want. More likely to self-doubt, this can be a symptom of learned helplessness. Fear of success Men do not fear the success. They actually believe they can accomplish These conclusions were controversial and so it was duplicated multiple times – with consistent results. In grade nine girls hope to become lawyers, doctors and nurses. By the time they are graduating they want to be nurses, dental hygienist, and legal secretary. They downgrade their ambitions / downshifting of aspirations Why? Sexual harassment, stereotypes and so on cause women to doubt themselves and their abilities & Of course, Horner’s theory of the Fear of Success Special Kinds of Knowledge 1. Academic Askill or a talent that is unique to the individual That is highly recognized by adults & the academic world It is a lonely experience for the individual with this talent because it takes practice to hone their skill to the utmost they must work alone for long periods of time. They who make the most of these special talents are usually invulnerables Invulnerables are adaptable so they are able to tie in social and other situations II. Recreational/Leisure These kids are “in the know” They have some sort of skill or ability that is respected and valued by their peers Traditionally a positive knowledge or skill that peers in particular relish For example, Chess club pro Talented singer Accomplished athlete Others are more negative Being known for selling drugs, for example Similar to clique/gang in that their peers respect them III. Clique/Gang Rules of conduct must be followed Rules of inclusion and or exclusion Outsiders are intruders There are practices in freezing unwanted people out Both genders involved together and in gendered cliques and gangs In intersex gang’s girls usually become “hand maidens” to the men with power There is more of a demonstration of power here than the Recreational/Leisure group or person There is a pecking order Similar to recreational/leisure category in that their peers respect them Normative (Culture) Crisis (slides 19 & 20) Relates to these two knowledge’s (recreational/leisure & cliques/gangs) Boys Girls Males: Major Concerns Females: Major Concerns 1. Achievement 1. Friendship 2. Autonomy 2. Dating 3. Authority 3. Popularity 4. Control 4. Understanding and managing interpersonal crisis Wheel of Power (slide 21) Adolescents seem to have an aversion to the structure of high school They enjoy the social aspect of school They do not typically care much about the adults in school They don’t mind authoritative figures as long as they are flexible with their “guidelines” They do not like authoritarian types Girls associate with those in the “male hub” because they like powerful men. They are afraid to be competent, and so on. They enjoy being a part of the powerful family and like to feel the power vicariously through the men in their lives They do respect and keep doing, as they are required in order to maintain their place in the family We often see girls capitulate for boys, as they would not do at home. For example – a girl will “go and fetch” for a boy without challenge where at home they challenge parents The idea here is that if the girl misbehaves she will be replaced Each girl is an individual. Boys are a group. This makes girls divided. They are merely a part of someone else’s power base. Girls will often focus on their looks, as it is assumed their appearance helped them “get in” The girls do not seem to know that they could have. They don’t recognize that they would have more power outside the wheel of power than inside it  It is hard for girls to believe.  They often see the power imbalance as natural We have seen some rare instances of the reversal of these gendered roles. Within female gangs boys may be invited in to be the spokes. female female female Male hub female female female Control Mechanisms (slide 22) Three means used in order to keep women in line as those spokes in the wheel of power by the men in the hub Labels stereotypes and labels to downgrade women  intended to keep girls in subservient position, especially in the gangs and cliques Those with skills in recreation and leisure that are valued by peers will usually have the confidence and support elsewhere to critically think about the validity of negative comments Fads in order to recognize other members of the clique or gang you may have fads like piercings, tattoos, and certain fashion of clothing The boys will decide how and when the fad changes Violence If a girl outperforms a boy she risks being ousted and / or beat-up No one is to challenge or surpass the boys in the hub Male Sexuality Gouldner looked at the cultural shifts in Canadian males. Studied males in Canadian society for over a decade There is a telling and gradual change in the expectations of males in Canadian cultures: 1.The most important element has been the women’s movement (late 60s early 70s) 2.The lowering birth rate (the only way we increase our population now is through immigration)  Men have more time to spend with their children, giving them time to practice the mothering role which has resulted in a softening of some the definition of “male” 3.The increase in the divorce rate  thrust many men into single parenting (full and part time)  Also softening the mask of masculinity 4.The economic situation of the Western World  there are times when the women maintain their jobs and the men do not, and the roles can become reversed with the male taking care of the home 5.The gay revolution accepting and acknowledging the equality of different gender identities and orientations softens the mask of masculinity 6. The way that men have come to look at their work  family has become equally important to men as their work. * definitely on the final exam Gouldner has researched the shift in society toward the softening of the mask of masculinity Survey of >400 men Most respondents could be categorized into one of 6 types. (of course you may shift over your lifespan, but by and large you will identify in one type) How do they look at ideas of liberation and change? How do they relate to others and so on. Ramrodders Individuals who have blocked from awareness the changing roles of women Status quo patriarch Authoritarian Women are subservient and inferior Rebellers Feel the need to rebel against the small group of women who are trying to undermine society. They are threatened by the change in women’s roles and those who try to change the status quo The believe that something like the women’s’movement runs counter to the status quo and the way society has been throughout history Resisters They are aware change has taken place but they believe that these changes have negative implications for society in general They defend their own personal position in the guise of protecting the structures of society They often do this through politically or religiously backed groups Example: Murphy Brown resistance to idea of mothering out of wedlock Resigners Recognize women’s movement Cant figure out what’s expected of them Resigned to going with the flow, going with the changes Trying to do the right thing but don’t really “get it” Reframers Variance in the rate of change  he’s got to believe it rationally, not just on a “gut level” They want to change and they know they have to They are recalibrating their lives, reframing it based on changes How have their want for a wife changed: 30 years ago  a good cook, can clean and sew Presently  intelligent, educated Men have realized that society dictates a two-income home so you can bring in more money Have recalibrated what is important in a wife now Relaxers They challenge the male myth about the mask of masculinity They are not afraid of their feminine side They want to live their lives as a person not as a gender They are relaxed about their own sense of self and their relationship with a female These are the least anxious group They are relieved to be out of the straight jacket of masculinity of the past Stages of Moral Development (slide 24) Lawrence Kohlberg believes he discovered the natural sequence in the development of the moral compass independent of variables (no matter what religion, race, upbringing etc.) 1. children learn to avoid behaviour they fear with lead to punishment or pain if we look at Erikson’s autonomy vs. shame and doubt – also the terrible two’s  we are always saying “no” and we then slap their hands rather than reasoning with them and creating empathy Other studies show that in grade school and high school empathy is lacking and has prompted the development of empathy-focused courses in school. 2. they select their behaviour so as to maximize reward or advantage bribery used by parents to elicit appropriate behaviour 3. the expand their concept of reward to include the good opinion of others so that their development is governed by the desire to be accepted and approved usually the age at which they go to kindergarten they want to be the teacher’s helper, lots of encouragement and approval  so they begin to cater behaviour to that which they will be praised for 4. As they mature, they differentiate between the approval of just anyone and the approval of those they have come to trust as moral mentors Break in Development (usually between high school and the “next step” – whether that be college, university or the workforce) 4.5 The individual discovers moral relativity - that different authorities have different concepts of right and wrong nd Disillusioned, he or she rejects the formally accepted moral authority and returns, in effect, to the 2 level  the level of reward seeking as a guide to moral decision-making Example writing college paper geared to what the prof wants, not necessarily what you believe 5. From all the principles of right and wrong they have seen and known, they select those, which seem to them to be of value. They make a covenant with themselves and perhaps symbolically with those they love or even with the community at large that they will honour certain principles of reciprocity and responsibility Now a responsible and accountable adult and live life according to your values Saying from the bible we capitulate to in this stage: Do unto others as you would have done to you Examples churches, charities, food banks, taxes paid for universal health care, employment insurance and so on 6. They may make the final leap to the level of living their lives in conformity with a fully integrated master principle To live in this level of conformity within moral development is only rarely achieved by men or women Examples Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela, Gandhi, Princess Diana, These people are seen as few and far-between The professor disagrees with this. She believes that most people want to make a difference everyday. If you do something for another you are at level 6. We mustn’t think that we are so imperfect that we are only worthy with grand accomplishments. The small things make a difference. Sex, Power and the Violent School Girl Introduction: Competition and force are favoured over mediation We live in a violent society and are a product of it When we look at research regarding Canadian teens what we see is more and more violent incidents being perpetrated among teenage girls individually and in groups and gangs Especially with girl perpetrators more likely the victim will be female rather than male Violent girls are usually associated with gangs. Typically violent girls are represented as Hispanic orAfrican American 13-16 year old females have the highest violences participation rates of any teenager Theories: These are all largely associated with characteristics and behaviours of males and violence as the research on females and violence is much more rare 1. Strain Theory Merton, Cohen 2. Differential Association Theory 3. Social Control Theory 4. Labeling Theories 5. Biologically Based Theories Lombrosio said that females were by their nature less criminal than males, because they had evolved less than men so they were weaker passive and childlike and could not participate in activities like crime Their primary functions were childbearing and care taking Under developed intelligence, piety, temper, vengeful nature etc. If women are violent that may be because they did not possess maternal instincts Most likely degenerate, misfit throwback 6. Gender Role Theories Women are socialized with higher level of moral development As we raise females we expect them to achieve and be those individuals who are the image of moral character We will set boundaries shaping such an outcome We are less concerned when males fail to live up to a certain moral standard We have different expectations of teens based on their gender 7. Masculinization Theories This on-stream change that is beginning Frieda Adler  there is a convergence that should occur, that should’ve been initiated by the women’s movement we would expect women to be assertive and perhaps aggressive  women will demand equality  some females became very much like the brutal and violent men in the male hub = this is the masculinization theory wherein these women leave the wheel of power with the male hub and become the hub in their own wheel of power Bridging the Gap (slide 30) Artz’s StudyApproach The study grows out of violence among girls in Canada Women planning, and perpetrating violent crime inspired the research She asks: How can it be that females who are culturally expected to be much more moral empathetic group could turn out as such a violent cohort These girls’perspective of the world around them and their role in it may be influential She speaks to these girls and their families She concludes: Novak’s Declaration of FaithApproach  How much faith do I have in the world around me and how do I prepare myself to live in it? we respond to the world outside of us – imagining what that world is really like. So if I’m a woman here in Ontario teaching on campus, do I carry a pistol for protection? No. I don’t own a gun; I don’t anticipate anyone accosting me. So in accordance with my world I expect peace. If you grow up in a violent area where gun violence is a regular occurrence, you’ll find people expecting to be attacked and so they are much more likely to carry weapons, or have weapons in their homes. They are responding to the world as they see it. We see that you are responding to your role, as having some kind of control over your life. You are looking at the possible intersection of what you believe and what society has to offer. If you are peaceful and the world is peaceful there no need for a weapon Opinions of other Researchers Young Canadian Women and Violence Crime rates  by the end of the 20thC it had risen (beginning of survey in 1960s, with the cultural shift of women becoming more assertive and independent, ending in the late 1990s) Arrests for aggravated assault ^ 3x Robbery ^ 4x Homicide ^ 33% Robbery +Assault ^ more than twice the rate that men increased (10x) Felony arrests 124% ^ Young women and violence the Canadian rates are higher than theAmericans (24%, US = 18%) We see the women have a greater sense of aggression. There is a shift from being submissive to being more aggressive They are they fastest growing group of violent offenders on our continent. Female suicide rates  down 50%  killing and harming others, not killing themselves  rather self-inflicting their pain they “other-direct” the violence  she will harm you before she will harm herself Our Denial Literature suggests you would assume the suicide rates of women increased between the 1960s and 1990s especially as violence against others increases but the opposite is actually true. We still want to believe girls are generous, nurturing, empathetic and so on… The Hard Truth Girls other direct their anxiety, depression, anger, and pain It sounds wrong, because we thought girls were so sweet This is the hard truth It’s time that we start looking at this and provides some nuance to our picture of female adolescents in Canadian society Women want to possess power for the same reasons as men do and are now more likely to be able to achieve it (teacher claims “if they put their mind to it”) In being aggressive women can also reach level of men This is something we don’t like to admit There are some positively aggressive things that women do, like policewomen, those in the armed forces, but they are in socially sanctioned environments, as business, politics and sports are also socially sanctioned environments. When women use their positive aggression in these socially sanctioned environments it is acceptable – they are not doing harm to anyone. Therefore women are not “non-violent”. Women also exercise NegativeAggression – female adolescence do harm others, etc. Gangs, violence, and so on We need to see women for who they are and we have to respond to the literature in a fair and equitable way Shattering the Myths We know we believe men to be the main perpetrators of violence. But it is a myth Elsa Glazer (anthropologist) She looked at the types of female aggression around the world She was working in Zambia  female politicians typically scapegoat (rather than support young, educated woman) other women. They get rid of the competition by any means necessary – beating, hitting, etc. Israel  women of higher status would use gossip and inside knowledge in order to disgrace or dishonor other women to keep them on the sidelines and out of the competition (marginalize then) Palestine  20-40 women per year murdered (by brothers or fathers) to defend family honour.  Other women acted as instigators to these honor killings and were accomplices in that they spread the gossip causing the men in the family to kill their sister or daughter in defence of family honor (women using men (by spreading gossip) to kill these other women) Though a woman may look weak, she can still perpetrate crimes with her cunningness Solomon Islands - Rolf Kusholf– women may look politically weak, however they may high assassins to kill other women in order to succeed. NorthAmerica - Female gangs are there - Girls instigate conflict through gossip, and they may oblige males to do something about it - They are not shy in using violence to demonstrate their power and show their toughness - Therefore there is this potential for violence and aggression in woman as well - In western society, we have been taught this ‘gender theory’– telling females that we should be nice, polite, etc. and do not attack back when something negative happens. - Doctors treating young girls – eating disorders (girls eat too much food since they believe that is the only thing they have power in), alcohol problems, doing drugs, cutting and scarring their bodies – this is all because they believe they can’t do anything about their circumstances and feel they are powerless. The ultimate case for girls to overcome this “powerlessness”, is by committing suicide and ending their lives. Gender Theory it is common to teach boys and girls to behave according to their gender. Imposing the socially acceptable gender roles on boys and girls In Drs treating young girls we find them being treated for eating disorders (I can control nothing but I can control this), alcoholism and drug addiction (life sucks I’ll numb myself), cutting (if I can’t handle the world outside I will self-inflict) Femininity women express self-harm in response to powerlessness This kind of self-infliction (drugs, drinking, etc.) is no less aggressive or violent than when boys kick walls and doors and so on. This self-infliction is punching (making) a hole in the soul when they self-inflict in this way. Someone suffers, her, or in the case of suicide, her family, and her friends The shift does not result from a change in the cause; it is a change in the outcome. Rather than self-inflecting we inflict outwardly Profile of the Violent School Girl (slide 31) Artz tried to make sense of the violence young women were perpetrating in Canada With these topics she tries to highlight the variables she suspects most influential Family Middle-class, dual-income (both mother and father working) Significantly less importance placed on family life, not really much of a meaningful relationship The violent schoolgirl does not enjoy a relationship with the mother Mother is not her friend or confidant The girls fear being abused, and more are being abused or have been in the past (sexually, physically or emotionally) Indulge in acts of defiance (lying, breaking curfew, destroy family belongings, and other rebellious acts) The Violent School Girl, in terms of the least valued of people she knows, is the connection she has with her mother. (Next to no relationship between mother and daughter) Peer Groups Feel like they belong to the gang (it might look like a clique – but it’s a gang) There are very strong affiliations The downside is the Wheel of Power where the men are the hub for these girls (they are operating in the gang – one girl is a girlfriend of a male in the hub  sexual complacency is expected of you if you are to be affiliated Rapper gang  pro-machismo (the men rule), misogynistic (they have no respect for woman – more so for girls outside the group, however even to girls in the group – it is a dysfunction type of respect, pro-crime, Banger Gangs (those that love heavy metal music, and that attire dress) > expectation that women serve men in hub, look up to the males in the hub, etc. Skateboarding Gang  pecking order - girls must be good to get in but can’t be better than any of the boys or they’ll be beat up, the girls (skaters) are called Betties In the groups, the girls are subservient (the spokes) and glean power (status) only by living vicariously through the boys Schools and Teachers Negative relationships with teachers They do not have respect for school or teachers Girls often damage school property and property of others Disrespectful in school, often suspended (regular and recurring thing) Interpersonal Social Values Dysfunctional moral relativity  they endorse a moral judgment that sanctions aggression and violence as a way to get what they want (If I want something, I’ll just beat you up and get it from you if you don’t want to give it) No civility, no altruism, no empathy Just me, myself and I. What I want, when I want it, how I want Self Concept Being compared with males in the gang, the females have lower self-esteem (less confidence) They are set up for more oppression given this low self-esteem Personal and Social Concerns Higher concerns about unequal treatment of women. They are less concerned about the violence in schools, the global situation; they are less confident that if they were to work hard, they could better their lives - There is hopelessness that we see in their lives They worry there isn’t enough time (like other teens) They usually have more money than most teens however They are bothered when they don’t have money, because it provides a sense of ‘security’to them Support Systems The girls do not feel understood by their supports, like mom and dad They feel disconnected from any adult support systems Low response rate to choosing their parents as a source of fun for them, nor do they consult parents about a question of right or wrong (they’ll ask a friend instead), or about a problem at school, or even when making decisions about their career path and future (low rate of choosing their parents for whom they should discuss it). Girls even with a major problem will not choose to talk to their parents (they are more likely to choose their friends) – parents are insignificant Experience ofAbuse Highest levels of fear of being forced into sex (of being sexually assaulted) They are the most fearful cohort of sexual violence or date rape sex Highest rates of being talked into sex against their will amongst teens Highest rates of physical violence at home They are not in a healthy situation at home; therefore they won’t be in a healthy relationship elsewhere Family – The violent school girl, in terms of the least valued of all the people she knows or groups she participates in, the least valued is the connection she has with her mother – almost no relationship with their mothers. Atrz’s Narratives  Protagonists Sally She comes from a dysfunction family – Mother was divorced when she was 6, Mom has a new partner, nine years younger than her (than Sally’s mother). Acts more like a brother to Sally and tries to participate in things she and her friends want to do. Fights with her like a brother would Behaves in an immature fashion rather than as a stepfather Mother treats the husband as if she is also her son, instead of her husband Mother says interact better – but she’s not prepared to interfere further, and so she is parenting them both Sally’s father has also remarried (and so she also has a step mother) – they have another child who is now 5 (step sister) Stepmother is indifferent, but
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