Sociology Exam Review- Terms
Chapter 11: Sexuality & Gender
Bisexuals- are people who enjoy sexual partners of both sexes
Equal pay for work of equal value- refers to the equal dollar value of different
jobs. It is established in gender neutral terms by comparing jobs in terms of
the education and experience needed to do them and the stress,
responsibility, and working conditions associated with them
Essentialism- is a school of thought that views gender differences as a
reflection of biological differenced between women and men
Glass Ceiling- is a social barrier that makes it difficult for women to rise to
the top levels of management
Gender- is you sense of being male o female and your playing of masculine
and feminine roles in ways defined as appropriate by your culture and
Gender discrimination- involves rewarding men and women differently for
the same work
Gender ideology- is a set of interrelated ideas about what constitutes
appropriate masculine and feminine roles and behaviours.
Gender Identity- is a person’s identification with, or sense of belonging to, a
particular sex- biologically, psychologically and socially.
Gender role- is the set of behaviours associated with widely shared
expectations about how males and females are supposed to act.
Heterosexuality- is the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual
Homosexuals- are people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex.
Hostile environment sexual harassment- involves sexual jokes, comments
and touching that interferes with work or creates an unfriendly work
Intersexed- infants are babies born with ambiguous genitals because of a
hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause.
Quid pro quo sexual harassment- takes place when sexual threats or bribery
are made a condition of employment decisions
Sex- depends on whether you were brown with distinct male of female
genitals and a genetic program that released either male or female hormones
to stimulate the development of you reproductive system
Transgendered- people break society’s gender norms by defying the rigid
distinction between male and female
Transsexual- believes they were born with the “wrong body”. The identify
with, and want to live fully as, members of the “opposite sex”
Chapter 12: Sociology of the body: Disability, Aging & Death
Ableism- is prejudice and discrimination against people who have disabilities Age cohort- is a category of people born in the same range of years
Age roles- are norms and expectations abut the behaviours of people in
different age cohorts
Age stratification- is social inequality between age cohorts
Ageism- is prejudice and discrimination against older people
Disability- is a physical or mental problem that keeps people from
performing within the range of normal human activity
Generation- is an age group that has unique and formative historical
Gerontocracy- is a society ruled by older people
Impaired- people are considered deficient in physical or mental capacity
Life course- refers to the distinct phases of life through which people pass.
These stages vary from one society and historical period to another.
Life Expectancy- is the average age at death of the members of a population
Population pyramids- are graphs that show the percentage of the population
in various age and sex cohorts
Rehabilitation- involved curing disabilities to the extent possible through
medical and technological intervention; trying to improve the lives of people
with disabilities by means of care, training, and education; and integrating
people with disabilities into society.
Rites of passage- are cultural ceremonies that mark the transition from one
stage of life to another. (e.g. Baptisms, confirmations, weddings) or from life
to death (funerals)
Chapter 13: Work and the economy
Capitalism-is the dominant economic system in the world. Private ownership
of property and competition in the pursuit of profit characterize capitalist
Codetermination- is a German system of worker participation that allows
workers to help formulate overall business strategy. German workers’
councils review and influence management policies on a wide range of
issues, including when and where new plants should be built an dhow capital
should be invested in technological innovation.
Communism- is a social and economic system in which property is owned by
public bodies; government planning, not the market, determines production
Conglomerates- are large corporations that operate in several industries at
the same time.
Corporations- are legal entities that can enter into contracts and own
property. They are taxed at a lower rate than individuals are and their
owners are normally not liable for the corporations debt of any harm it may
cause the public
Deskilling- refers to the process by which work tasks are broken into simple
routines requiring little training to perform. Deskilling is usually accompanied by the use of machinery to replace labour wherever possible
and increase management control over workers.
Division of labour- refers to the specialization of work tasks. The more
specialized the work tasks in a society, the greater the division of labour.
Economy- is the institution that organizes that production, distribution and
exchange of goods and services
Fordism- is a method of industrial management based on assembly-line
methods of producing cheap, uniform commodities in high volume.
Free market- prices are determined only by supply and demand
Human relations school of management- emerged in the 1930’s as a
challenge to Taylor’s scientific management approach. It advocates less
authoritarian leadership on the shop floor, careful selection and training of
personnel and greater attention to human needs and employee job
Interlocking directorates- are formed when an individual sits on the board of
directors of two or more non-competing companies
Internal labour markets- are social mechanisms for controlling pay rates,
hiring and promotions within corporations while reducing competition
between a firms workers and external labour supplies
Labour market segmentation- is the division of the market for labour into
distinct settings. In these settings, work is found in different ways and
workers have different characteristics. There is only a slim chance of moving
from one setting to another.
Markets- are social relations that regulate the exchange of goods and
services. In a market, the pries of goods and services are established by how
plentiful they are (supply) and how much they are wanted (demand)
Oligopolies- are giant corporations that control part of an economy. They are
few in number and tend not to compete against one another. Instead, they
can set prices at levels that are most profitable for them.
Primary labour market- comprises mainly highly skilled or well-educated
white males. They are employed in large corporations that enjoy high levels
of capital investment. In the primary labour market, employment is secure,
earnings are high, and fringe benefits are generous.
Productivity- refers to the amount of goods or services produced for every
Professionals- are people with specialized knowledge acquired through
extensive higher education
The Quality of work life movement originated in Sweden and Japan. It
involves small groups of a dozen or so workers and managers collaborating
to improve both the quality of goods produced and communicating between
workers and managers
Regulated market- various