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Sociology Exam Review.docx

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Sociology Exam Review- Terms Chapter 11: Sexuality & Gender  Bisexuals- are people who enjoy sexual partners of both sexes  Equal pay for work of equal value- refers to the equal dollar value of different jobs. It is established in gender neutral terms by comparing jobs in terms of the education and experience needed to do them and the stress, responsibility, and working conditions associated with them  Essentialism- is a school of thought that views gender differences as a reflection of biological differenced between women and men  Glass Ceiling- is a social barrier that makes it difficult for women to rise to the top levels of management  Gender- is you sense of being male o female and your playing of masculine and feminine roles in ways defined as appropriate by your culture and society.  Gender discrimination- involves rewarding men and women differently for the same work  Gender ideology- is a set of interrelated ideas about what constitutes appropriate masculine and feminine roles and behaviours.  Gender Identity- is a person’s identification with, or sense of belonging to, a particular sex- biologically, psychologically and socially.  Gender role- is the set of behaviours associated with widely shared expectations about how males and females are supposed to act.  Heterosexuality- is the preference for members of the opposite sex as sexual partners  Homosexuals- are people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex.  Hostile environment sexual harassment- involves sexual jokes, comments and touching that interferes with work or creates an unfriendly work environment.  Intersexed- infants are babies born with ambiguous genitals because of a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause.  Quid pro quo sexual harassment- takes place when sexual threats or bribery are made a condition of employment decisions  Sex- depends on whether you were brown with distinct male of female genitals and a genetic program that released either male or female hormones to stimulate the development of you reproductive system  Transgendered- people break society’s gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between male and female  Transsexual- believes they were born with the “wrong body”. The identify with, and want to live fully as, members of the “opposite sex” Chapter 12: Sociology of the body: Disability, Aging & Death  Ableism- is prejudice and discrimination against people who have disabilities  Age cohort- is a category of people born in the same range of years  Age roles- are norms and expectations abut the behaviours of people in different age cohorts  Age stratification- is social inequality between age cohorts  Ageism- is prejudice and discrimination against older people  Disability- is a physical or mental problem that keeps people from performing within the range of normal human activity  Generation- is an age group that has unique and formative historical experiences  Gerontocracy- is a society ruled by older people  Impaired- people are considered deficient in physical or mental capacity  Life course- refers to the distinct phases of life through which people pass. These stages vary from one society and historical period to another.  Life Expectancy- is the average age at death of the members of a population  Population pyramids- are graphs that show the percentage of the population in various age and sex cohorts  Rehabilitation- involved curing disabilities to the extent possible through medical and technological intervention; trying to improve the lives of people with disabilities by means of care, training, and education; and integrating people with disabilities into society.  Rites of passage- are cultural ceremonies that mark the transition from one stage of life to another. (e.g. Baptisms, confirmations, weddings) or from life to death (funerals) Chapter 13: Work and the economy  Capitalism-is the dominant economic system in the world. Private ownership of property and competition in the pursuit of profit characterize capitalist economies  Codetermination- is a German system of worker participation that allows workers to help formulate overall business strategy. German workers’ councils review and influence management policies on a wide range of issues, including when and where new plants should be built an dhow capital should be invested in technological innovation.  Communism- is a social and economic system in which property is owned by public bodies; government planning, not the market, determines production and distribution.  Conglomerates- are large corporations that operate in several industries at the same time.  Corporations- are legal entities that can enter into contracts and own property. They are taxed at a lower rate than individuals are and their owners are normally not liable for the corporations debt of any harm it may cause the public  Deskilling- refers to the process by which work tasks are broken into simple routines requiring little training to perform. Deskilling is usually accompanied by the use of machinery to replace labour wherever possible and increase management control over workers.  Division of labour- refers to the specialization of work tasks. The more specialized the work tasks in a society, the greater the division of labour.  Economy- is the institution that organizes that production, distribution and exchange of goods and services  Fordism- is a method of industrial management based on assembly-line methods of producing cheap, uniform commodities in high volume.  Free market- prices are determined only by supply and demand  Human relations school of management- emerged in the 1930’s as a challenge to Taylor’s scientific management approach. It advocates less authoritarian leadership on the shop floor, careful selection and training of personnel and greater attention to human needs and employee job satisfaction.  Interlocking directorates- are formed when an individual sits on the board of directors of two or more non-competing companies  Internal labour markets- are social mechanisms for controlling pay rates, hiring and promotions within corporations while reducing competition between a firms workers and external labour supplies  Labour market segmentation- is the division of the market for labour into distinct settings. In these settings, work is found in different ways and workers have different characteristics. There is only a slim chance of moving from one setting to another.  Markets- are social relations that regulate the exchange of goods and services. In a market, the pries of goods and services are established by how plentiful they are (supply) and how much they are wanted (demand)  Oligopolies- are giant corporations that control part of an economy. They are few in number and tend not to compete against one another. Instead, they can set prices at levels that are most profitable for them.  Primary labour market- comprises mainly highly skilled or well-educated white males. They are employed in large corporations that enjoy high levels of capital investment. In the primary labour market, employment is secure, earnings are high, and fringe benefits are generous.  Productivity- refers to the amount of goods or services produced for every hour worked  Professionals- are people with specialized knowledge acquired through extensive higher education  The Quality of work life movement originated in Sweden and Japan. It involves small groups of a dozen or so workers and managers collaborating to improve both the quality of goods produced and communicating between workers and managers  Regulated market- various
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