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Chapter 13.docx

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Tina Fetner

Chapter 13- Education  Education is the process through which academic, social, cultural ideas and tools, both general and specific, are developed.  You can invest in human capital is many ways: going to college, taking a night class or learning a trade. Socialization  Another function of school is to socialize young people  Hidden curriculum is the non-academic socialization and training that take place in the schooling system (punctuation, honesty)  Sending American Indian children to school to make them civilized The Coleman report  Research was determined that few, if any, of the differences in resources between schools actually affect educational outcomes, such was the finding of a landmark sociological study known as Coleman report.  In 1964  The researchers found that the differences in resources between schools didn't matter  Most of the differences in achievement among schools could be attributed to two factors: family background and the other peers with whom students attend school Class size  Schools with smaller classes significantly benefited their students compared to schools with larger classes.  Even after returning to their regular classes, students in the study assigned to the smaller classes experiences significantly fewer disciplinary problems and significantly higher achievement tests scores that nonparticipants.  There benefits were long-lasting  In terms of both long and short term benefits, effects were particularly strong for minority students and those from low-income families. Private schools vs. public schools  Several researchers have found that school sector affects educational outcomes even after students' different backgrounds are taken into account.  After diving private schools Into catholic and non-catholic  The non-catholic school (least expensive among private schools) were the most successful in preparing students academically, particularly students with disadvantaged backgrounds.  This is because of the certain academic and behavioural differences between private and public school  Private school students did more homework, had a greater chance of being enrolled in academic programs, took more college preparatory classes than public school students  Behaviourally, private school students had better attendance, got into fewer fights and threatened teachers less than public school students  Social capital is any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others.  Differences among students within schools were significantly greater than the differences among students between schools. What's going on inside schools? The sorting machine revisited: tracking  Tracking is a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans  Tracking is intended to create a better learning environment, because students goals are matched to their curricula  Researchers have determined that tracking has significant impacts even after controlling for background characteristics.  Tracking predicted if the students were going to attend college  Non catholic students in catholic schools perform better academically,  Research conducted by Jeannie Oakes (1985) has suggested that tracking might actually be bad because there are stark differences in the quality of teaching and content of materials between tracks. The classroom pressure cooker  What we have in a classroom is the potential for a powerful pressure cooker: students and teachers spend hours of their days together under the teachers' jurisdictions.  What goes on inside will therefore play an important role in student outcomes  Pg 483 - teachers  Teaching methods supported by extensive research is called best practices  David Figlio determined that more behaviour problems in a classroom significantly increase other students' disciplinary problems and reduce their test scores  Research suggests that when students are places in a classroom with others of high ability, all students profit  However, this works both ways Higher education  In a short period of time, U.S. has experiences a virtual educational boom, how can we explain this: o Functionalist perspective: (who believe that everything in society exists to fulfil a function)  Jobs became more technical and required a more educated workforce  Students were simply responding to employer demand  However, this is not backed up by data o Conflict perspective:  Maybe to traced to the American views on education and the expansion of the school systems in the twienth century, therefore higher level of education became universal  Credentialism is an overemphasis of credentials (college degree) for signalling social status or qualification for a job  when everybody attained so much education, employees tend to increase job requirements to screen out people.  The upgrading of degree requirements by employers is a cycle reinforced by students who keep getting more education to meet employer minimum requirements The SAT: Meritocracy and the big test  Research has determined that although the SAT scores was a significant predictor of freshman year GPA, one's high school GPA is a stronger predictor  The SAT accurately predicts the college outcomes on
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