Chapter 13- Education
Education is the process through which academic, social, cultural ideas and tools,
both general and specific, are developed.
You can invest in human capital is many ways: going to college, taking a night class or
learning a trade.
Another function of school is to socialize young people
Hidden curriculum is the non-academic socialization and training that take place in
the schooling system (punctuation, honesty)
Sending American Indian children to school to make them civilized
The Coleman report
Research was determined that few, if any, of the differences in resources between
schools actually affect educational outcomes, such was the finding of a landmark
sociological study known as Coleman report.
The researchers found that the differences in resources between schools didn't
Most of the differences in achievement among schools could be attributed to two
factors: family background and the other peers with whom students attend school
Schools with smaller classes significantly benefited their students compared to
schools with larger classes.
Even after returning to their regular classes, students in the study assigned to the
smaller classes experiences significantly fewer disciplinary problems and significantly
higher achievement tests scores that nonparticipants.
There benefits were long-lasting
In terms of both long and short term benefits, effects were particularly strong for
minority students and those from low-income families.
Private schools vs. public schools
Several researchers have found that school sector affects educational outcomes
even after students' different backgrounds are taken into account.
After diving private schools Into catholic and non-catholic The non-catholic school (least expensive among private schools) were the most
successful in preparing students academically, particularly students with
This is because of the certain academic and behavioural differences between private
and public school
Private school students did more homework, had a greater chance of being enrolled
in academic programs, took more college preparatory classes than public school
Behaviourally, private school students had better attendance, got into fewer fights
and threatened teachers less than public school students
Social capital is any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of
Differences among students within schools were significantly greater than the
differences among students between schools.
What's going on inside schools? The sorting machine revisited: tracking
Tracking is a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans
Tracking is intended to create a better learning environment, because students goals
are matched to their curricula
Researchers have determined that tracking has significant impacts even after
controlling for background characteristics.
Tracking predicted if the students were going to attend college
Non catholic students in catholic schools perform better academically,
Research conducted by Jeannie Oakes (1985) has suggested that tracking might
actually be bad because there are stark differences in the quality of teaching and
content of materials between tracks.
The classroom pressure cooker
What we have in a classroom is the potential for a powerful pressure cooker:
students and teachers spend hours of their days together under the teachers'
What goes on inside will therefore play an important role in student outcomes
Pg 483 - teachers
Teaching methods supported by extensive research is called best practices
David Figlio determined that more behaviour problems in a classroom significantly
increase other students' disciplinary problems and reduce their test scores
Research suggests that when students are places in a classroom with others of high
ability, all students profit
However, this works both ways Higher education
In a short period of time, U.S. has experiences a virtual educational boom, how can
we explain this:
o Functionalist perspective: (who believe that everything in society exists to
fulfil a function)
Jobs became more technical and required a more educated workforce
Students were simply responding to employer demand
However, this is not backed up by data
o Conflict perspective:
Maybe to traced to the American views on education and the
expansion of the school systems in the twienth century, therefore
higher level of education became universal
Credentialism is an overemphasis of credentials (college degree) for
signalling social status or qualification for a job
when everybody attained so much education, employees tend to
increase job requirements to screen out people.
The upgrading of degree requirements by employers is a cycle
reinforced by students who keep getting more education to meet
employer minimum requirements
The SAT: Meritocracy and the big test
Research has determined that although the SAT scores was a significant predictor of
freshman year GPA, one's high school GPA is a stronger predictor
The SAT accurately predicts the college outcomes on