Sociology Quiz 2 notes
Order Theory (Macro Level)
Stress that human behaviour is governed by the stable patterns of social relations or structures.
How social structures maintain their stability.
Emphasize that social structures are based mainly on shared values.
Maintaining balance solves the problems.
Conflict Theory – it is our economic conditions of life that shape how we life
Change Theory (Macro Level)
Karl Marx (predicted capitalism would be replaced by socialism)
Focuses on relations among classes
Shows how patterns of inequality in society produce social stability and social change.
Stresses how members of privileged groups try to maintain their advantages.
Argues that eliminating privilege will lower the level of conflict and increase the sum total of human
Symbolic Interactionism – Society is created through our everyday interaction.
Change Theory (Micro Level)
Interested in understanding subjectivity and how our interactions create a sense of society.
Focuses on face-to-face communication
People create their social circumstances
Change Theory (Micro & Macro)
Gender relations and in inequalities
Holds that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by
structures of power and social convention
Women’s social reality
Chapter 12 – New Society
Three ways schools connect to society:
1. Through selection
- Higher & lower level programs = better / worse jobs
- Grading / marking = badges of ability
- Connects to societal level inequality
- Reflect workplace hierarchies
- Sort based on ability to ensure most capable go on to pursue university etc..
- See that school is based on merit (smartest, hardest working)
2. Socialize people
- Learn moral education
- Prevent “self-centeredness”, attempt to replace religion & its moral lessons
3. Social Organization - How new define different occupations
- Core of Max Weber’s “rationalization” (school is very bureaucratic)
- Schools teach skills, employees hire the most skilled school credentials represent skill.
Class Reproduction – doesn’t operate through direct inheritance in education.
- Can’t inherit dad’s law degree.
1. School is structured in stratified manner, structuring takes different forms across countries
2. Within structure, students have from different backgrounds unequal rates of success. (families
try to boost help).
Canada – traditional educational selection = streaming
i. Splitting students into curricular groupings, post-secondary & general training.
ii. Limits students from working class backgrounds.
Sponsored mobility – select few at young age to enter elite universities.
i. Increased structured streaming
ii. Given standardized tests to determine what school they go to.
i. Group bulk in same school / curriculum and send large numbers to unit
ii. Promote competition
iii. Most students attend schools that prepare them for university.
Structural Functionalists – schools increasingly award the best students.
- Believe in selection (sort students based on ability)
- Schools reward best students regardless of race.
Conflict Theory – worsen inequalities, stereotype disadvantaged.
Education among youth from all classes have increased over past half century.
Student success related to socioeconomic background. (IRON LAW)
Women surpasses men in most education attainment measures.
Schooling decreases learning gaps over socioeconomic lines.
As the level of educational attainment increases, people are more likely to embrace certain
differences. (civil liberty, diversity)
Structural Functionalists – schools teach modern values.
- As societies become increasingly secular, schools become more like the church teaching what is
acceptable and what is not.
- Transmit values
- Universalism – treat everyone equal
- Meritocracy – social rewards go to people with talent. - The values are taught by way of hidden curriculum (all that you learn that is apart from the
- School appears to make people more progressive.
- The more education one receives, the more values (morals) they take in.
Conflict Theory - The hidden curriculum of school is to teach students to find their place in society. To
respect authority and be well behaved.
- Support capitalism by creating disciplined labour force.
Symbolic Interactionism – Paul Willis – Learning to Labor
- Counter culture in which they rejected the ability to get better jobs through education
because their parents were all labour working class people
- Textbooks = sexist language
- Women = elementary teachers but male principal
- Schools tolerate male actions that in the real world would be sexual harassment.
Limits of School Socialization
- Assume schools have lots of socializing power yet no evidence.
o Influenced beyond school (family peers)
- Status groups
o Students lack power but have enough autonomy to invent their own social realm.
- Cliques are like castes
- The longer people are in school, the weaker the socializing impact becomes.
- Progessive Pedagogy - schools are like mall (specialty shops), multiple intelligences.
o An educational movement that emphasizes student directed learning.
o John Dewey
o Don’t want students to just be instrumental towards schooling
o Instead nurture intrinsic motivation = engage them to work / try voluntarily.
o Relax discipline, destructuring classrooms.
o Course variety
- Theory of Multiple Intelligences: (8)
- Credentialism – need post secondary to succeed in the labour market.
SIQ – Chapter 2
- Canada tuition < American
- Today = knowledge economy = post secondary schooling critical. - Enrollments high and expected to grow.
- Students choose fields they know nothing about.
o Social science = highest enrollment in Canada
- Economic authorities cannot influence what is taught in university.
Why is sociology valued in labour market?
- Fields teach diffuse skills that are useful in various service sector jobs even though they are relevant
to only a few jobs
Flexible = many occupations
Decision making, communication, interpersonal
Quicker job training
Long term advantage = portable
Education = screening device
Requirements in research and stats
- Passport to graduate degrees
Soc sci students are the mostly likely to pursue post grad.
SIQ Ch. 11 – Do Video Games Kill?
- Gamers = folk devils (individuals defined as evil / immoral)
- Newspapers and politicians blame video games primarily for social rejection, feelings or
alienation at school and depression.
- Video games = murder simulators, equivalent to military training
- The connection between the two are merely coincidental.
- More aggressive people seek violent entertainment.
- Proof that video games increases spatial skills / reaction time, not aggression.
- Research in this tries to decontextualize violence because young people are passive media
watchers. Meaning that those who enjoy tv violence are less likely to believe it has a negative
SIQ Ch. 8 – Connecting communities on and offline
- Internet is a part of life, communic