fall-winter 2010-2011

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Leanne Joanisse

2D06 Sociology of the Human GroupFallWinter 20102011DrJoanisseScientific Foundations of Social Psychology Social psychology the scientific study of the relationship between individuals and society Allport Social psychology is the attempt to understand and explain how the thought feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual imaged or implied presence of others Psychological Social Psychology studies of conformity and obedience Humans are powerfully impacted by their environmentpsychologists more concerned with process rather than environment The individual is the main unit of analysis Sociological Social Psychology emphasize the impact of societal forces in addition to immediate social context on individuals lives Study immediate social context that people live in as well as a society as a whole Emphasis is on understanding social cultural and historical context of human experience Historical Context Auguste Comptescientific method to social world st 1879 Wundt set up worlds 1 experimental psyc laboratory st 1897 1 soc psyc experimentTriplett 1908 term social psychology 1934 Mead Mind Self and Society 1950 theme Research Methods Theories general explanation of the relationships among a set of variables to explain what they observe General statement about the relationships Statement about the cause of those relationships General prediction based on these reasons Concepts basic building blocks of theory Variables concepts that vary over space and time Independent causes the effect Dependent change in response to changes in the independent variable Evaluating Research Internal Validity the fit between theoretical concept and the researchers measure of the concept Independent variable did cause the effects on the Dependent variableif the research does measure what it is suppose to it has high internal validity External Validity the extent to which research findings can be generalized to other settings and populationsSurvey Research three methods1 Selfadmin survey 2 Personal Interview 3Telephone Survey Strengths most widely used Time effective and relatively cheap EfficiencyWeakness rely on selfreports may not respond truthfully poor memoryExperimentsLaboratory Strengths ability to control independent variables and to isolate the experimental variables is ideal to cause and effect High in internal validity Many require relatively low amounts of time and money Weakness problem of reactivitytendency of subjects to change their behaviour in response to the researcher or to the fact that they know they are being studied Lack mundane realismthe extent to which the laboratory situation is similar to some situations of interest in the outside world Field studies in which investigators manipulate variables in natural nonlab setting Strengthshigh external validity Greater mundane realism when conducted in natural environments Weaknessdifficultly manipulating independent variables Internal validity is lowNaturalistic Observationdirect observing in a public setting Participant observation a qualitative research method in which researchers play active roles in the situations that they are studyingEthnography a detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by a researcher who may live with that group over a period of yearsimmersed in group or subculture Strengths authentic research first hand experience high in internal validity Weakness bias a long time and very expensive not appropriate for studying large groups rely on skills insights and feelings of the researcher therefore cannot be generalized Low in external validityPrimary Socialization Socialization the process by which individuals learn the values norms beliefs and roles of their society Feral children children raised by animals isolated from societyVictor the wild Boy of AvetronIsolated children Anna and Isabelle Ability to become human is only a potentialsociety makes us humansthrough our socialization Biology and environment interact to form to formfunctional members of societyJean Piaget interested in showing how young people gradually progress through distinct stages At each stage childrens activities governed by the world around them 1Sensor motor Stage children understand only through 5 senses and immediate actionKnowledge is through actionno mental symbols Object permanence doesnt realise that objects exists if you cannot see them They start they realize objects continue continues to exist when they are out of sight2 Preoperational Stage children begin to use language and form mental images Principles of conversation an amount of an object stays the same even when its appearance changesnot aware physical appearance may change while it still keeps physical qualities Inability to solve problems logically and flexibility Egocentrism egocentric speech is noncommunicative speechinability to separate perspective from those of others Verbalize thoughts without trying to communicate Children speech is not fully communicative until about 7years3 Concrete Operational Stage children can begin logical reasoning reserversability change of object can return to original formdraw conclusions about action without having to try it out they understand without seeing or doing however thinking is still centered on tangible objects and actual events Hierarchical classification sort and classify objects into classes and subclassesContrast to egocentric ability to assume view points of others Language becomes social and communicative4 Formal Operational Stage able to engage in highly abstract thought and with imagination Imaginary audience distorted image of adolescence Belief that you are the focus of everyones concern Become extremely selfconscious therefore go to great lengths to avoid embarrassmentPersonal fable develop inflated opinion of own importanceCapacity for abstract thought understands metaphors penny for your thoughtsStrengths children active knowledge seekers who under go complex cognitive changeschildren at different stages have different skills Weakness no attention to culture Lengths of stages are disputedVygotskys Sociocultural theory emphasizes the role of culture and social environment in cog development Emphasizes interactions with the social world vs the physical worldlearn about physical world through verbal description guided and interpreted by other people Cognitive growth must be understood in context of culture in which heshe livesThrough interactions cultivate skills and abilities that cultural groupsvalue Guidance is replaced by internalized self regulation Emphasis on language disagree with egocentric speech they are interested in the thoughts of others Childs mind grows interactions with other minds Children use speech to talk to themselvesattempting to talk to themselves through problemsZone of proximal development difference between what a child can do independently and with the help from teachers Scaffolding adjustment that teachers make in assisting students who are attempting to solve a problemaid in implementing a task Role of make believe children learn to act in accord with internal ideas Rule based nature of make believe strengthen childs capacity to think before they actin play children do what they most feel like doing They act against immediate impulse because most follow social rules to execute play scene As children enact rules they come to better understand social norms and expectations and strive to behave in ways to uphold them Strengths more crosscultural concerns Weakness scaffolding not only verbal dialogue is important Depending on the task verbal dialogue is not always important or helpful eg weaving baskets
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