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2Z03 Lecture 19 Exam Review.docx

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Gerald Bierling

Fox 1 Lecture 19 SOCIOL 2Z03 Monday April 7, 2014  Term Review • Think about: Where do all of these parts fit into a larger picture?  Purpose of Course: • Learn how to do empirical research to answer the questions in which we are interested • Exploratory question: Is there mistrust in post-Apartheid South Africa? (between races/figure out whether or not they do mistrust each other/if there is mistrust, ask self a descriptive question: what is the level of mistrust in Apartheid South Africa? If levels of mistrust ask why=Explanatory question: what are the sources of mistrust in post-apartheid South Africa? • Empirical research is based on observation and collection of data, where our aim is to understand social regularities  Paradigms, Theory and Social Research: • Helps identify research questions, variables and hypothesis • While we focus on methods, our research is guided by paradigms and theory: • E.g Network Theory: do increased social ties increase levels of trust? • Data cant be understood/interpreted without theories; we don’t even know what data to collect without theories (can help us measure trust and mistrust in south Africa)  Ethics: • Because we study people, we must follow ethical guidelines: o No harm to subjects/participants; informed consent o Voluntary participation o Anonymity and confidentiality: people need to trust us o E.g Survey of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa  Research Design: • Different types of designs. Which relate to different types of research: • Exploratory: just trying to learn more about something • Description: describing single entities (variables) Fox 2 Lecture 19 • Explanation: attempt to find causality; test hypothesis • Depending on the type of design you’re doing, your collective method may be different • Different types of data: cross-sectional vs. time-based (there are different types of longitudinal studies) • Eg.: STR o Cross-sectional, units of analysis are individuals in S.A o One purpose was to describe and explain levels of trust in S.A  Conceptualization, Operationalization & Measurement: • Before we can describe and explain we need to: o Define our measurements; coming to agreement what those concepts are o Identify our indicators (what the data will be that will measure our concepts) • Quality measures must be: o Precise and accurate (of measures and indicators) o Reliable o Valid: measure what they say they’re measuring o E.g= [GROUP] are untrustworthy (agree strongly, agree, uncertain, disagree, disagree strong
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