SOCIOL 2RR3 Midterm: midterm 1 DEFINITIONS

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14 Oct 2015
Midterm 1
Chpt 1,2,3,5,6,16
Chapter 1
Inequality – inequality refers more or less their life choices and life chances for
individuals and groups of people – not just what people have; it's not just the differences
in lifestyle but also what they can do and what they can become
Objective element of social problems – this is the basis in reality for whether a social
condition or behavior pattern is a problem or not – this basis involves identifying who is
harmed and who benefits, and in what ways, from a social condition or behavior pattern
Power – the ability to set limits on the behavioral choices for ourselves and for others –
clearly in play with individuals and groups act in ways that achieve their desires, needs,
and interests against those of others
Private troubles – occurs within the character of the individual and within the range of
immediate relations with others; have to do with the self and with those limited areas of
social life of which we are directly and personally aware
Public issues – public issues have to do with matters that transcend the local environment
of the individual and the range of inner life
Resistance – comes in acting to change to basic social inequalities of society – can be an
individual act or can occur in collectivities – state or nonstate organizations – not always
intentional, some resistance is more symbolic than material
Structure – social and political structures are the patterns of behavioral relationships
between groups of people in society
Subjective elements of social problems – often called public perception – what people
perceive as real will guide their actions and their understanding of society – what people
think are the consequences
Chapter 2
Feminism – term used to describe a diverse set of beliefs, political practices, social
practices, social movements, and sociological theories predicated on a set of underlying
assumptions and principles that recognize the historical subordination and oppression of
Fordism - economic and political system in which the state would provide a social safety
net and uses resources to direct investment and economic activity – workers through their
unions would get wage increases in line with productivity gains plus inflation – business
would make most of the economic decisions
Instrumentalists Marxism – neo-Marxist view – places emphasis on personal and
personnel connections between representatives of the capital class and the state –
maintaining that the capitalist class is able to control and direct the activities of the state
because the people operating the state either come directly from the capitalist class or
shared values and ideologies of the capitalist class
Liberal feminism – locates women's inequalities in the dysfunction of the existing social
institutions – argued that sexist ideas and beliefs are central causes of women's
inequalities – these conditions can be altered through the introduction of nonsexist ideas
and norms and intensive resocialization without any major or radical change the basic
institutional orders
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Midterm 1
Chpt 1,2,3,5,6,16
Mechanisms of power – stresses the need to understand that there is a number of different
meanings that can be employed to influence the state in capitalist society – includes both
direct and indirect mechanisms of power – the class with overwhelming economic power
is better able to exercise them
Pluralism – the earliest recognize that individuals will differ in terms of their income,
social status, authority, and liberal democratic systems prevent these from becoming
entrenched social inequalities – maintain that Democratic electoral systems, and group
blogging insurer and democratic decision-making process because all groups and interest
in society have a more or less equal opportunity to influence the government
Socialist feminism – two forms of oppression of women in capitalist society – women are
part of the historical and overall system of class exploitation – women are oppressed by
the structures and dynamics of patriarchy – advocate the need to confront and change all
forms of patriarchal social organization
State system/polity -is made up of all of the institutions, organizations, and agencies
connected with political processes in societies with formally organized political
Structural functionalism – an approach to social analysis that employs an organic analogy
– each component of society is the seem to have certain basic needs that must be met if
society is to survive – each social institution performs a specialized function that
contributes to the maintenance of the overall system
Structuralist Marxism – a version of neo-Marxist theory that draws on functionalist logic
– the state's major role is attempting to prevent the conflicts and contradictions from
destroying the capitalist system
Third wave feminism – emphasizes the necessity of recognizing the complexities of
women situations and experiences by rejecting any simple notion of women as
homogenous category or group – there cannot be a singular, totalizing, or universal
feminist theory
Chapter 3
Citizenship regime – shifts in the ways states allocate responsibilities across sectors,
defined rights and duties, of work citizens access to legislative and other policy arenas
Conflict Tactics Scale – developed by Murray Strauss – CTS is a questionnaire-based
survey that measures intimate violence in terms of actions ranging from pushing,
shoving, and slaps to beatings and assault with a weapon – finds that while women suffer
greater injury, women and men perpetrate and instigate violence at equivalent rate
Family Violence Initiative – the multi-partner coordinating agency established by the
government of Canada in the 1980s to reduce and eliminate violence and abuse in
relationships of kinship, dependency, and trust
Feminism – social movement that advocates for full social, legal, political, and all other
rights and opportunities of women equal to those of men
Gender equality – the goal of ensuring that women and men enjoy equal status, equal
rights, and equal opportunities – family, education, occupation, and political life
Gender symmetry – the contention that men are equally or more victimized that women
in relationships – marked by partner violence – includes physical and emotional injury
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