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SOCIOL 2S06 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Claude Henri De Rouvroy, Comte De Saint-Simon, Auguste Comte, Industrial Revolution

10 pages32 viewsFall 2016

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCIOL 2S06
Professor
David Young
Study Guide
Midterm

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Introduction to sociological theory 12/4/2016 1:01:00 AM
7 September, 2016
Forces affecting the Development of Sociological theory
Social Forces
Political revolutions
Took place in 18th and 19th Century
French and American revolution
Has impact and changes on sociological theory
Positive changes
Created greater freedom and democracy
Negative Changes
Early theorist tend to focus on negative changes
Chaos and disorders
Restoring social order
Emile Durkheim and Auguste Comte
The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Capitalism
Late 19th century and early 20th century
Agricultural society to industrial society
People left farming, they enter the stage of manufacturing and factories
Capitalism
Factory owners comporting Factory workers
Negative Reactions
Labour movement emerged to flight for the rights of the workers who
were exploited by capitalism
Radical Movements
“not a good economic system” “we need to move on to something else”
Understanding developments and resulting social problem
KARL MARX, EMILE DURKHEIM, MAX WEBER
They all live through from industrial evolution to the next stage
The Rise of Socialism
Some thinkers favored socialism as a solution of the problem of industrial
revolution and capitalism
Karl Marx talked about the need to engage into the act of overthrow
capitalism and emplace it with socialism
Sociologist who Imposes socialism : Durkheim and weber (they believe
there is a solution of capitalism)
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Early Feminism
Patriarchal societies
19th century
Early female theories
Include charlotte, harise, martinenl,
Their views are discounted and marginalized by male theorist until the
late 20th century
Late 20th Century
Urbanization
Growth was connected to industrial revolution
They leave rural areas to urban areas
Overcrowded
Pollution
Noise
Traffic
Religion
Durkheim and Weber
Interest in the positive social aspects
Durkheim argue that religion have the role to establish the solidarity of
early society
Religion help those society together
The growth of Science
Natural Sciences: Physics, biology, chemistry
Honour and prestige are associated
Durkheim and comte argue sociology should be modernize in the nature
sciences
Weber argue that it is impossible to analyze social life in a scientific way;
there is a interpretative way to analyze sociology
Intellectual FORCES
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
What was the Enlightenment
Reason
Rationality
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IT involve the use of reason to assess explanation of reality
Empiricism
Use of evidence to describe and analyze phenomena
Ideas of the Enlightenment
Create logical explanation of reality (theories) Test the explanation
against evidence (observation)
The Enlightenment Traditional Authority
They want to move beyond non-rational explanation out of the world
Include myth and religion
They rejected tradition authority and value and institution
E.g. religious value and institution
The Conservative Reaction to the Enlightenment
French Catholic counter-revolutionary philosophy
Establish a republic
They rejected the French philosopher’s focus on rationality; they think it
is a waste of understanding the world
They value tradition, imagination emotion and religion
They ideas of enlightenment are threating to traditional institution
Patriarchy, family, catholic church
They want to maintain the above
The impact of the Enlightenment and the conservative Reaction
The Development of French Sociology
The ideas of Claude Henri de Saint Simon
A French aristocrat
Impact on conservative theory and radical theory
He wants to maintain and preserve society as it was
He did see the need for some changes to society
He emphasize the importance to understand social phenomena:
empiricism and science
The Ideas of Auguste Comte
A French philosopher
His use of the term “sociology”
He was the FIRST to use these term; he created and coined this term;
means the science of society
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