SOCIOL 2S06 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Weimar Republic, System On A Chip, Structural Functionalism

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
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SOCIOL 2S06
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Intro to Sociological Theory 2S06
-Tutorials don't start until end of Sept
-do reading before tutorial to do exercises
-doesn't post lecture notes on Avenue
-nothing is culuminative
Part I: Intro & Classical Theorists
Sept 5
Studying Sociological Theory
A) Reasons for studying soc theory
2 main reasons:
1) Interpreting Social Conditions
-gives us a way to interpret social conditions, gives us a way to make sense of the social world all
around us
-e.g. can understand the role of transnational corporations by looking at Marx's ideas about
capitalism, or Weber's ideas about bureaucracy
2) Comparing Different Perspectives
-soc is made up of many diff. theories, they give us diff. perspectives of social conditions
-when we compare them, we can do 2 things: 1) get different insights on social conditions, and
2) can consider which perspective(s) are most useful for understanding social conditions
-e.g. looking at Marx and Weber's ideas, they are different, can compare, etc.
B) Understanding the Emergence of Sociological Theory
sociology & soc. theory emerged in the late 19th century
did not emerge any earlier because soc. grew out of a number of intellectual developments that
paved the way for the emergence for soc. theory
The Impact of the Enlightenment - an intellectual development
What was it?
-"was a period of intellectual development and change in philosophical thinking during the 17th
& 18th centuries"
Key aspects of Enlightenment Thinking
1) Reason
-the human ability to think about things
-ability to create, apply, and evaluate knowledge
2) Rationality
-the use of reason to deliberate and evaluate explanations regarding the nature of reality
3) Empiricism
-the use of evidence to describe & analyze phenomena
-can create rational explanations regarding the nature of reality -> and these are theories
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-can also test the explanations -> observations -> see if they support or challenge what we come
up with
-theories -> observations = the basis for science
C) The Enlightenment and Traditional Authority
reason & rationality important for the enlightenment thinkers because got us away from non-
rational explanations of the world e.g. religion, myth, tradition
consequently, enlightenment thinkers inclined to reject traditional authority e.g. the authority
of religious organizations and think in a more rational way
were interested in and oriented towards social change - clearly evidence in work of early
thinkers, particularly Marx
D) The Conservative Reaction to the Enlightenment
negative reaction
they wanted to cont. to emphasize religion, myth, tradition
oriented towards social order e.g. Durkheim
E) Impact of the Enlightenment and the Conservative Reaction on Sociology
some forms of sociology developed a focus on being rational, empirical, scientific, and being
oriented towards social change
on the other hand, the conservative reaction to the Enlightenment had an impact on other
forms of sociology, because as soc developed, some forms became orientated towards social
order
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