BIOL 125 Final: Review for Chapter 36. Plant Form and Function

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BIOL 125
Matthew Nelson

Chapter 36. Plant Form and Function (Review for Final) 44. What are vascular bundles? • A vascular bundle is a cluster of xylem and phloem strands in a plant stem 45. Know the anatomy of a herbaceous stem for dicots and monocots 46. Know the different leaf types • Simple leaves: blade is undivided • Compound leaves: blade is divided, leaflets formed and attached to the middle vein but have their own stalks • Opposite leaves: paired opposite each other on stem • Whorled leaves: arranged in a whorl • Alternate leaves: arranged to alternate on either side f stem • Rosette: compact basal arrangement where internodes are really short 47. Know the cross sectional anatomy of a eudicot leaf Root System 48. Know the basic anatomy of a root • Root cap: a small group of cells that covers and protects the tip of a plant root; senses gravity and determines the direction of root growth o Suberin: a waxy compound found in the cell wall of endodermal walls • Meristem: a group of undifferentiated cells that can develop into various adult tissues throughout the life of a plant • Zone of Division: in plant roots, it is a group of apical meristematic cells behind the root cap where cells are actively dividing o Quiescent center: region in apical meristem of a root where cell division is very slow; if tissue surrounding is damaged, cells can do meristematic activity o Primary meristems: ▪ Protoderm: the exterior layer of a young plant embryo that gives rise to the epidermis ▪ Ground meristem: the middle layer of a young plant embryo; gives rise to the ground tissue system ▪ Procambium: a group of cells in the centre of a young plant embryo that gives rise to vascular tissue • Zone of Elongation: in plant roots, it is a group of young cells behind the apical meristem that increase in length • Zone of differentiation: in plant roots, it is a group of plants cells several centimetres behind the root cap that are differentiating into mature tissues o Epidermis: outermost layer of cells o Cortex: a layer of ground tissue found outside of the vascular bundles and pith of a plant stem o Stele: vascular cylinder of a stem or root made up of xylem and phloem ▪ Endodermis: a cylindrical layer of cells that separate the cortex from vascular tissue ▪ Pericycle: a layer of cells that give rise to lateral roots • Root hair: a long, thin outgrowth of the epidermal cells of plant roots, providing increased surface area for absorption of water and nutrients 49. What is a tap root? • Tap root: a large vertical main root of a plant 50. Know the anatomy of the root tip cross section 51. Know the part of a root tip Monocots • Tissue types in concentric rings Dicots • A bit more organized, or a least centralized starch storage
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