BIOL 125 Final: Review for Chapter 40. Plant Reproduction
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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 125
Professor
Matthew Nelson
Semester
Winter

Description
Biology 125 Chapter 40. Plant Reproduction (Review for Final) Plant Reproduction Alternation of Generation 83. What is alternation of generation? • Alternation of Generation: a life-cycle involving alternation of a multicellular haploid stage (gametophyte) with a multicellular diploid stage (sporophyte); occurs in most plants and some protists 84. How are the patterns of alternation of generations different in different plant groups? • Land plant evolution: more recent plants have reduced gametophytes and sporophytes become more conspicuous 85. What is a gametophyte? Sporophyte? • In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the gametophyte is the multicellular haploid form that arises from a single haploid spore and produces gametes; a female gametophyte is called an embryo sac while a male gametophyte is called a pollen grain • In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the sporophyte is the multicellular diploid form that arises from two fused gametes and produces haploid spores 86. What are some examples of sexual and asexual reproduction in plants? • Asexual reproduction does not involve fertilization and results in the production of clones, genetically identical copies of the parent plant o Rhizomes refers to shoots and roots emerging from nodes on underground horizontal stems; if the individuals emerging from the nodes are separate from the parent plant, they represent asexually produced offspring o Corms, modified stems that grow under the surface of the soil (gladiolus plant) o Plantlets are formed from meristematic tissues located along the margins of the kalanchoe’s leaves; when they mature, they drop off the parent plant and grow into independent individuals o Apomixis is a phenomenon that results in seeds genetically identical to the parent o Selfing/ Self-fertilization • Sexual Reproduction o Cross-pollination: pollen is carried from the anther of an individual to the stigma of a different individual 87. What is meant by mitosis? Meiosis? • Meiosis: type of nuclear division that results in four daughter cells o Occurs in sporophytes and inside structures (sporangia) o Sporophytes produce spores by meiosis (2n -> n) • Mitosis: type of nuclear division that results in two daughter nuclei genetically identical to parent nucleus o Gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis 88. What are spores? • Spores: single cells produced by mitosis or meiosis (not fusion of gametes) and produces haploid spores 89. Know the terminology used to discuss sexes in plants • Perfect: a flower that contains both male parts (stamens) and female parts (carpels) • Imperfect: a flower that contains male parts OR female parts • Hermaphroditic, Monoecious, Dioecious Flowers 90. What are the main functions of the flowers? • Mainly reproduction • Produce and attract gametophytes; develop seeds 91. Know the anatomy of a flower Arranged in whorls or circles of structures: • Sepals: one of the protective-leaf like organs enclosing a flower bud and late supporting the blooming flower • Petals: one of the leaf-like organs arranged around the reproductive organs of a flower • Receptacle: thickened part of a stem from which the flower organs grow • Calyx: all of the sepals of a flower • Corolla: all of the petals of a flower Reproductive Structures: • Stamen: male reproductive structure of a flower; consists of an anther and a filament o Anther: pollen grain production o Filament: supports the anther • Carpels: female reproductive organ in a flower; consists of stigma and ovary o Stigma: the moist tip at the end of a flower carpel where pollen grains adhere o Ovary 92. How is pollen produced? • Each diploid cells produces 4 microspores • 4 microspores divide mitotically to form 4 pollen grains o Generative cell: sperm nuclei o Vegetative cell: pollen tube • Surrounding pollen grain o Outer layer: sporopollenin o Inner layer: pectin surrounded 93. How is the female gametophyte produced? • Ovule o Inner tissue = nuce
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