GEO 151 notes

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Queen's University
Applied Science
APSC 151
David Alan Hanes

LECTURE 1: What is Engineering? The art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of people What are the steps in basic engineering design? Optimization, time, economics, environment, sustainability What are constraints? Cost, repairs, environment, resources, What is the technological cycle? What are examples of Energy organizing and converting devices? Earth systems: Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere Earth Cycles: Rock Cycle, Hydrological Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Resource Cycle, Biological Cycle, etc. What is Sustainable development? Sustainable Engineering ? What is the triple bottom line?Economic, Social, Environmental. What is an Ecological Footprint Energy Use in NA..40% Petroleum, 23% Coal, 22% Coal, 8% Nuclear, 7% Renewable (2009). Technology for improvement of Triple Bottom Line Examples: Dump--->Engineering Landfill; Mine Waste Disposal ---> Mine Waste Management Failure in engineering for the TBL.Automobile Fuel Economy over the last 30 years. Tarbuck Chapter 20 What do we need? Air Water Food Forests and wetlands Wildlife Space Metals Non-metallic minerals Energy Global resources are currently adequate in most cases Costs controlled by stock markets rather than by consumers and suppliers. Transport costs may be less than difference in labour costs between countries Regional resources are limited Local resources Metal, mineral and energy resources Canada has a rich supply but no nation is completely self-sufficient Mining industry vital to Canadian economy Canada one of largest exporters of minerals Resources Must be commercially available Metallic mineral deposits and geologic processes Ore metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit Non-metallic resources Aggregate and stone Natural aggregate crushed stone, sand, and gravel Clays Carbonate minerals Evaporate salts Phosphate Sulphur Talc Graphite Asbestos Garnet Non-renewable energy resources Petroleum forms by gradual cooking of simple aquatic organisms compressed in rock Coal Unconventional fossil fuel deposits Heavy oil sands (tar sands) Unconventional fossil fuel deposits Oil shale Shale gas Methane hydrate Nuclear energy Renewable fuel sources Hydroelectric power LECTURE 2 List as many resource types as you can think of. How much of Canadas fresh water supply is groundwater? How much of PEIs? What are global, regional and local resources? How does transportation control the value of a resource such as food? How much of Canada is wilderness? Why do we value this? Consider space as a resource Hi rise living or suburban acreage.which makes more sense? What are examples of renewable and non-renewable resources What is ore? What is aggregate used for? How do diamonds come to the surface of the earth? Where are they formed? Name some non-metallic industrial minerals. What are the primary sources of fuel energy? What are some impacts of hydroelectricity? Lecture 3: SUPPLY AND DEMAND (Handbook Section C) What is the current world population? over 7 billion people What was it in 1800? 1 billion people What happened to the global population around 1400 and why? it substantially decreased due to the Black Plague What is doubling time? the number of years for something to double in size/population Understand why we use: Linear, Power, Logarithmic and Exponential Functions. each type is used to model different situations linear - displacement, velocity power - logarithmic - animal population growth (predators) exponential - world population currently Understand the implications of exponential growth (eg. Population, consumption) What is the problem if resource discovery is linear and consumption is exponential? there will definitely not be enough to satisfy the population after an extremely small amount of time What does the exponential equation look like and what are the terms? (A)(e(B)(Time)) A is the initial number of people B is the growth constant Time is years from now that you want to know the population for What happened to increase the growth rate of population around 1800? people were celebrating the end of the Plague and so had babies. A lot of them. What does a population pyramid tell us? Distribution of age groups and their gender stages 1 and 2 are expanding
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