What is Engineering? The art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of people
What are the steps in basic engineering design?
Optimization, time, economics, environment, sustainability
What are constraints? Cost, repairs, environment, resources,
What is the technological cycle? What are examples of Energy organizing and converting devices?
Earth systems: Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere
Earth Cycles: Rock Cycle, Hydrological Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Resource Cycle, Biological Cycle, etc.
What is Sustainable development? Sustainable Engineering ?
What is the triple bottom line?Economic, Social, Environmental.
What is an Ecological Footprint
Energy Use in NA..40% Petroleum, 23% Coal, 22% Coal, 8% Nuclear, 7% Renewable (2009).
Technology for improvement of Triple Bottom Line
Examples: Dump--->Engineering Landfill; Mine Waste Disposal ---> Mine Waste Management
Failure in engineering for the TBL.Automobile Fuel Economy over the last 30 years.
Tarbuck Chapter 20
What do we need?
Forests and wetlands
Global resources are currently adequate in most cases Costs controlled by stock markets rather than by consumers and suppliers. Transport costs may be less than
difference in labour costs between countries
Regional resources are limited
Metal, mineral and energy resources
Canada has a rich supply but no nation is completely self-sufficient
Mining industry vital to Canadian economy
Canada one of largest exporters of minerals
Must be commercially available
Metallic mineral deposits and geologic processes
Ore metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit
Aggregate and stone
Natural aggregate crushed stone, sand, and gravel
Non-renewable energy resources
Petroleum forms by gradual cooking of simple aquatic organisms compressed in rock
Coal Unconventional fossil fuel deposits
Heavy oil sands (tar sands)
Unconventional fossil fuel deposits
Renewable fuel sources
List as many resource types as you can think of.
How much of Canadas fresh water supply is groundwater? How much of PEIs?
What are global, regional and local resources?
How does transportation control the value of a resource such as food?
How much of Canada is wilderness? Why do we value this?
Consider space as a resource Hi rise living or suburban acreage.which makes more sense?
What are examples of renewable and non-renewable resources
What is ore?
What is aggregate used for?
How do diamonds come to the surface of the earth? Where are they formed?
Name some non-metallic industrial minerals.
What are the primary sources of fuel energy?
What are some impacts of hydroelectricity?
Lecture 3: SUPPLY AND DEMAND (Handbook Section C)
What is the current world population? over 7 billion people
What was it in 1800?
1 billion people
What happened to the global population around 1400 and why?
it substantially decreased due to the Black Plague
What is doubling time?
the number of years for something to double in size/population
Understand why we use: Linear, Power, Logarithmic and Exponential Functions.
each type is used to model different situations
linear - displacement, velocity
logarithmic - animal population growth (predators)
exponential - world population currently
Understand the implications of exponential growth (eg. Population, consumption)
What is the problem if resource discovery is linear and consumption is exponential?
there will definitely not be enough to satisfy the population after an extremely small amount of time
What does the exponential equation look like and what are the terms?
A is the initial number of people
B is the growth constant
Time is years from now that you want to know the population for
What happened to increase the growth rate of population around 1800?
people were celebrating the end of the Plague and so had babies. A lot of them.
What does a population pyramid tell us?
Distribution of age groups and their gender
stages 1 and 2 are expanding