For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.
5. Alpha amanitin is a drug that binds RNA polymerase andprevents it from functioning in the cell (this is the compound thatis found in poison mushrooms). The reason people die when theyconsume alpha amanitin is:
a) Alpha amanitin prevents gene expression from occurring in thecell
b) DNA replication is directly inhibited by alpha amantin
c) Alpha amanitin binds tightly to the messenger RNAs that aremade in the cell, preventing translation
d) Alpha amanitin binds to nuclear pores preventing thetransport of messenger RNA into the cytoplasm
6. In order for transcriptional initiation to begin in E. colithe following elements are needed:
a) an origin and RNA polymerase
b) initiator protein and a promoter
c) the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase and an RNA template
d) RNA polymerase and a promoter
e) helicase and primase
Questions 7 and 8. You are studying two species of closelyrelated snakes, one species lives in sandy desert area and has paletan skin and the species lives in a volcanic rock area and has darkbrown skin. You a sequence the DNA from each type of snake anddiscover a gene encoding a protein that transports pigment into theskin cells. The pigment transporter protein is responsible for skincolor. When you analyze the DNA coding sequence of the pigmenttransporter from each snake you find these two DNA sequences (hashmarks have been added to indicate the reading frame):
pale tan snake: GCG/TTG/GAC/TGC/ACC (DNA template strand)CGC/AAC/CTG/ACG/TGG (complementary strand) dark brown snake:ACG/TTG/GAC/TGC/ACC (DNA template strand) TGC/AAC/CTG/ACG/TGG(complementary strand)
7. From these sequences you conclude:
a) that the amino acid sequence of the pigment transporters forthe two proteins are almost identical
b) that the amino acid sequence of the pigment transporters forthe two proteins are very dissimilar
c) that the amino acid sequence of the pigment transporters forthe two proteins are identical
8. Since the skin color is different in each snake, you concludefrom the sequence data above that:
a) the genetic code in the skin cells in each of these snakes isdifferent
b) the DNA sequence encoding the entire gene for pigmenttransporters in these two snakes is different
c) that one of the codons in the gene for the pigmenttransporter in these two snakes is different
9. You are analyzing eukaryotic cells that have been exposed tothe radioactive uracil. In most cells the radioactive uracil isinitially localized in the nucleus and then moves from the nucleusto the cytoplasm. However, you observe that in some cells theradioactive molecules stay in the nucleus and never arrive in thecytoplasm. This is most likely a defect in:
a) the transcription of the DNA
b) the processing of the mRNA
c) the translation of the RNA
d) the labeling of the RNA
e) the replication of the DNA
10. Which of the following is true of both eukaryotic andbacterial transcription? (select all that are true)a) Transcription factors must bind the promoter before RNApolymerase initiates transcription
b) Messenger RNAs must be spliced before translation begins inorder to produce the appropriate gene product
c) During transcription only one DNA strand is used as atemplate to make the messenger RNA
d) Termination of transcription occurs when the RNA polymerasetranscribes a hairpin structure in the RNA followed by a string ofU
Not yet answered
Marked out of 1.00
The function of tRNA is to
a. provide a site for polypeptide synthesis
b. transport amino acids to the ribosome
c. transcribe DNA
d. transform DNA
The lipid bi-layer is
c. hydrophilic and hydrophobic
d. depends on the surrounding medium
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. carbohydrates are generally hydrophilic molecules.
b. living things use carbohydrates for structure and for energy storage.
c. carbohydrates are composed principally of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
d. none of the above â they are all true
Which of the following terms correctly describes a compound featuring more than one double bond?
Eukaryotic mRNA transcripts are protected from modification by
a. 5' caps
b. 5' poly-A caps
c. 3' caps
d. 5'-3' poly tails
The methods of membrane transport that don't require protein channels or carriers are
e. all of the above
Complete the following sentences: "Primary active transport is dependent on __________. Secondary active transport is dependent on __________ created by __________.
a. channel proteins, electrochemical gradient, carrier proteins
b. electrochemical gradient, ATP, mitochondria
c. electrochemical gradient, ATP, primary active transport
d. ATP, electrochemical gradient, primary active transport
e. carrier proteins, electrochemical gradient, channel protein
Which of the following is a reduced compound?
d. NAD +
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments according to their:
a. base sequence
c. percentage of labelled nucleotides
d. electrical charge
a. part of interphase
b. the phase of the cell cycle where DNA replication occurs
c. the phase of the cell cycle where two identical daughter cells are created
d. a special "resting" phase in which cells are in a non cycling state
e. a special phase where the number of chromosomes in a parent cell is reduced by half such that each daughter cell contains only one member of a pair of homologous chromosomes
At which pH will the concentration of hydrogen ions be equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions?
a. pH 1
b. pH 5
c. pH 7
d. pH 9
e. pH 14
Which of the following enzymes has proofreading activity?
d. DNA polymerase
e. Peptidyl transferase
The process of _______________ cuts introns from the primary transcript and the final "processed" mRNA is produced.
a. RNA cleaving
b. RNA translocation
c. RNA elongation
d. RNA splicing
Transcription is initiated when RNA polymerase binds to
a. a promoter
b. an initiator
c. a transciptor
d. a codon
Complete the following sentences: "__________ connect the extracellular matrix with microfilaments. __________ connect intermediate filaments from adjacent cells."
a. Cadherins, Integrins
b. Connexins, Cadherins
c. Integrins, Cadherins
d. Integrins, Connexins
e. Connexins, Integrins
Which of the following regions of RNAs are translated?
a. 5' UTR
d. 3' UTR
Control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells occurs at which level(s)?
a. only the transcriptional level
b. epigenetic and transcriptional levels
c. epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational levels
d. epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels
Cellular organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes are called:
______ are chemicals or combinations of chemicals that take up excess hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions in order to keep the pH constant.
Which of the following proteins appear in some stages of the cell cycle and are degraded at other stages?
e. none of the above
Which of the following correctly matches an organelle with its function?
a. mitochondrion photosynthesis
b. nucleus cellular respiration
c. ribosome manufacture of lipids
d. lysosome movement
e. central vacuole storage
What is the sequence corresponding to the following electropherogram obtained by Sanger sequencing (green: A; red:T; black: G; blue: C)?
Which of the following statement is true
a. the two DNA strands are parallel and complementary
b. the two DNA strands are anti parallel and non-complementary
c. the two DNA strands are anti-parallel and complementary
d. none of these
The energy-requiring process by which small molecules are joined to form larger molecules is specifically called
d. enzymatic reactions
When DNA replication starts
a. the phosphodiester bonds between the adjacent nucleotides break
b. the bonds between the nitrogen base and deoxyribose sugar break
c. the leading strand produces Okazaki fragments
d. the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides of two strand break
A(n)_______ is the movement of a segment of a chromosome from one chromosome to another nonhomologous chromosome
Complete the following sentences: "Replication forks from the same origin of replication extend __________. __________ DNA strand is used as template for the leading strand at one fork and for the lagging strand at the second fork. New DNA is synthesized from 5' to 3' on the __________."
a. unidirectionally, A different, both the leading and lagging strands
b. bidirectionally, The same, leading strand
c. bidirectionally, The same, lagging strand
d. unidirectionally, A different, leading strand
e. bidirectionally, The same, both the leading and lagging strands
Manufacturing recombinant DNA molecules involves cutting a gene from its normal location, inserting it into a circular piece of DNA from a bacterial cell, and then transferring the circle of DNA to cells of another species. Which of the below describe the circular piece of DNA?
a. restriction enzyme
Complete the following chemical equation to make it balanced: glycerol + ___ ? triacylglycerol + ___
a. 3 fatty acid, 3 H2O
b. fatty acid, H2O
c. 3 OH-, 3 H+
d. 3 H2O, 3 fatty acid
e. fatty acid, 3 H2O
Which structure is found in plant cells but not animal cells? Check all that apply.
Select one or more:
a. Cell wall
d. Central vacuole
Biochemistry Review Questions
What is the classification of the compound shown here?
A) an aldohexose B) a ketohexose C) an aldopentose D) a ketopentose
2. In a disaccharide, the CâO bond that joins the two rings together is called _____.
A) a hemiacetal B) a glycosidic linkage C) an alditol D) an anomer
3. What is the structure of amylopectin?
A) unbranched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1ï®4-ï¡-glycoside linkages
B) branched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1ï®4-ï¡-glycoside linkages
C) unbranched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1ï®4-ï¢-glycoside linkages
D) branched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1ï®4-ï¢-glycoside linkages
4. In a disaccharide, the CâO bond that joins the two rings together is called _____.
5. Which type of linkage between the two rings is in the structure shown?
A) 1Â®4-b-glycoside linkage D) 1Â®1-a-glycoside linkage
B) 1Â®4-a-glycoside linkage E) 1Â®2-b-glycoside linkage
C) 1Â®1-b-glycoside linkage
6. What is the structure of cellulose?
A) unbranched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1Â®4-a-glycoside linkages
B) branched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1Â®4-a-glycoside linkages
C) unbranched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1Â®4-b-glycoside linkages
D) branched skeleton of glucose molecules joined by 1Â®4-b-glycoside linkages
7. Which amino acid is a basic amino acid?
A) serine B) arginine C) cysteine D) alanine E) valine
8. What monosaccharide is found in cellulose, starch, and glycogen?
E) More than one of the monosaccharides above is found in cellulose, starch, and glycogen.
9. Which is not a reducing sugar?
A) glucose B) fructose C) sucrose D) galactose E) an aldopentose
10. Sucrose contains one _____ unit and one _____ unit.
11. What is the particular sequence of amino acids of a protein that are joined together by peptide bonds called?
A) the primary structure of a protein C) the tertiary structure of a protein
B) the secondary structure of a protein D) the quaternary structure of a protein
12. What is the charge on an amino acid at a pH below its pI?
D) The charge or lack of charge varies depending on the amino acid.
13. What is the C-terminal amino acid in the tetrapeptide glycylalanyisoleucylmethionine?
A) alanine B) glycine C) methionine D) isoleucine
14. How many different dipeptides can be formed when one valine reacts with one glycine?
A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4
15. What is the process of altering the shape of a protein without breaking the amide bonds that form the primary structure?
A) hydrolysis B) competitive inhibition C) denaturation D) oxidation
16. Which of the following compounds is an enzyme?
A) glucose C) N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
B) triosephosphate isomerase D) dihydrofolate
17. What is a zymogen?
A) an amino acid with a neutral charge
B) inactive precursor of an enzyme
C) a molecule that causes an enzyme to lose activity
D) a nonprotein organic molecule needed for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to occur
18. Which of the following will the cause the rate of enzyme activity to first increase and then level off?
increasing the enzyme concentration
increasing the temperature
increasing the substrate concentration
increasing the pH
19. Which of the following make up a nucleoside?
base + sugar
base + phosphate + sugar
base + phosphate
phosphate + sugar
20. Transcription corresponds to which of the following?
the separation of the two strands of DNA to enable the formation of two identical DNA molecules
the transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA
the transfer of genetic information from RNA to DNA
the use of genetic information to synthesize a specific protein
21. Each individual tRNA contains _____
A) a base sequence that is identical to the informational strand of DNA.
B) the sequence of codons that determines the order of amino acids in the protein.
C) an anticodon of three nucleotides that is complementary to the codon in mRNA and identifies individual amino acids.
D) an anticodon complementary to any of the three stop codons.
22. Where does energy production occur in animal cells?
A) cell membrane B) cytoplasm C) mitochondria D) nucleus
23. How many molecules of CO2 are produced for each turn of the citric acid cycle?
A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 E) 4
25. Which is not a reaction found in stage  of catabolism?
A) fatty acid oxidation C) oxidative phosphorylation
B) glycolysis D) amino acid catabolism
26. What is the classification of the reaction shown?
A) oxidation D) hydrolysis
B) reduction E) isomerization
27. Synthesis of glucose from amino acids is called
A) Glycolysis C) Gluconeogensis
B) Glycogenesis D) Hydrolysis
28. The synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones in the body is referred to as
A) catabolism C) Ketogenesis
B) anabolism D)glycolysis
29. The nucleic acid base found in the mRNA but not in DNA is
A) Adenine C) Uracil
B) Guanine D) Cytosine
30. DNA rich in A-T base pairs have
A) 1 hydrogen bond C) 2 hydrogen bonds
B) 3 hydrogen bonds D) 4 hydrogen bonds
31. Where does the energy production occur in the cell?
A) Ribosome C) Mitochondria
B) Nucleus D) Cytoplasm
32. Where does the protein synthesis occur in the cell?
33. In the process of transcription, the flow of genetic information is from
A) DNA to DNA C) DNA to protein
B) RNA to protein D) DNA to RNA
34. Ammonium ions are converted to non-toxic nitrogen containing compounds through
A) Amino acid metabolism C) Urea cycle
B) Citric acid cycle D) transamination
35. In protein structure, B-pleated cheats are examples of
A) Primary structure C) Secondary structure
B) Tertiary structure D) Quaternary structure
36. Lactose is a disaccharide formed of
A) Glucose + fructose C) Glucose + galactose
B) Glucose + glucose D) Fructose + galactose
37. Saponification is
A) Hydrolysis of fats by strong base
B) Hydrolysis of glycerol by lipases
D) Oxidation reaction
38. The connection between amino acid residues in molecules of protein is
A) glycosidic linkage C) peptide linakge
C) ether linkage D) phosphodiester linkage
39. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally
A) Oil at room temperature C) Solid at room temperature
B) Semisolid at room temperature D) All of the above
40. Maximum energy is produced by
A) Carbohydrates C) Lipids
B) Proteins D) Nucleic acids
41. A polynucleotide contains _____
A) one free phosphate group at the 5' end.
B) a backbone of alternating sugar and base groups.
C) one free phosphate group at the 1' end.
D) one free OH group at the 5' end.
42. How many molecules of CO2 are produced for each turn of the citric acid cycle?
43. How many molecules of GTP are produced for each turn of the citric acid cycle?
44. Which is the enzyme that hydrolyzes triacylglycerols?
A) acetyl CoA D) lipase
B) protease pepsin E) succinate dehydrogenase