BIOL 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Chemical Polarity, Hydrogen Cyanide, Lipid Bilayer

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4 Aug 2016
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BIOL 102 Exam Review (Learning Objectives)
Unit 1
describe cell theory
o a theory is an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or
observation
· Scientific theory have a pattern and process component
o Cell theory addresses what are organism made of and where do they come
from
· Establish 2/5 attributes of life (organisms are cellular & pop.
change over time)
o CELL THEOY
· Pattern: All organisms are made up of cells
· Process: All cells come from pre-existing cells
describe how natural selection leads to evolution
o Evolution: Change in characteristics of a population over time
· Occurs when heritable variations lead to differential success in
reproduction
o Natural Selection explains evolution, it occurs when
· Individuals within a population have varying characteristics that
are heritable, and
· Certain versions of the heritable trait help individuals survive
better or reproduce more than other versions
Adaptation and fitness are related to natural selection. Fitness is the
ability of an individual to produce offspring. Adaptation is the trait that
increases fitness of an individual in a particular environment. If an
individual is more biologically fit, and they pass on the adaptation trait, they
will produce offspring who have a better chance of survival.
o If heritable traits lead to increased success in producing offspring, then
those traits become more common in the population over time, resulting in
the populations characteristic change (evolution)to occur
o Natural selection acts on individuals, and evolution acts on populations
describe the principles of experimental design and analysis
o Characteristics of Good Experimental Design
· Must include control group: controls for factors, other than the
ones being tested that might influence the experiment’s outcome
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· Experimental conditions must be constant: to control all the
variables except the one being tested, also eliminates alternative
explanations for the result
· Repeating the test: large sample sizes in experiments are better,
by testing many individuals the amount of distortion in the data
caused by unusual individuals or circumstances is reduced
(outliers)
Replicable, reliable
o Biologists practice evidence based decision making. They ask questions
about how organisms work, pose hypothesis to those questions and use
experimental or observational evidence to decide which hypotheses are
supported by the data
· Hypotheses: proposed explanations that make testable
predictions-- predictions that can be supported or rejected based on
analyzing and collecting data
· Predictions: observable outcomes of particular conditions
· Well-designed experiment: alter just one condition- a condition
relevant to the hypothesis being tested
understand the basic principles of taxonomy
o Taxonomy: the effort to classify organisms
· Ex. Woese taxanomic category was called domain
Domain: Bacteria, Archaea & Eukaraya
· Phylum: major lineages within each domain
In phylogeny, rRNA sequences can be used to see how closely related
species are. If the rRNA is similar (e.g. AUAUCGAG and
AUAUGGAG), then these are closely related.
The phylogenetic tree is based on these molecular similarities and
differences. Branches that share a common ancestor represent
species that are closely related, and vice versa.
Unit 1 idea: the cell theory and the theory of evolution predict that all
organisms are part of a genealogy of species and that all species
trace their ancestry back to a single common ancestor.
Unit 2
· describe the basic structure of an atom
o Extremely small particles called electrons orbit an atomic nucleus made up of
larger particles called protons and neutrons
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o Protons have positive electric charge, neutron are electrically neutral and
electrons have a negative electric charge
· describe how atoms interact through bonding to form molecules
o chemical bonds-strong attractions that bind atoms together
o Shared electrons “glue” two atoms together in a type of chemical bond called
a covalent bond
o Nonpolar covalent bond: electrons equally shared between two atoms of the
same or similar electronegativity. Compare with polar covalent bond
Ex: C--H bonds
o Polar covalent bond: result of asymmetric sharing of electron (unequal)
o Ionic bonds are similar in principle to covalent bonds, but instead of sharing
electrons between two atoms, the electrons in ionic bonds are completely
transferred from one atom to another.
· describe the physical properties of water that are relevant to biology
o water is vital for a simple reason: it is an excellent solvent (because it makes
hydrogen bonds)—an agent for getting substances into solution.
o when two liquid water molecules approach each other, the partial positive
charge on hydrogen attracts the partial negative charge on oxygen. This weak
electrical attraction forms a hydrogen bond
Since water is polar, other polar molecules and charged substances (e.g. ions)
interact with water and stay in solution via hydrogen bonding and electrostatic
attraction
Water’s ability to participate in hydrogen bonding also gives it very high heat
capacity (absorb heat) and cohere to other water molecules.
· Waters ability to absorb energy is critical to the theory of chemical evolution
· Compounds that were important to evolution dissolve readily in water, they
were well protected from sources of energy that could break them apart (ex:
sunlight)
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