BIOL 111 Study Guide - Final Guide: Baby Boomers, Total Fertility Rate, Infant Mortality
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FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN POPULATION SIZE
1. Demography is the study of human populations in size, composition, distribution, and changes.
2. Human populations grow or decline through three factors: births, deaths, and migration.
3. Demographers use the crude birth and death rates (# of births/deaths per 1000 people per year).
4. Birth rates and deaths rates are declining worldwide; but, death rates have declined more sharply.
5. Every second, there is a net gain of 2.6 more people being added to the world’s population.
6. The rate of the world’s annual population change is a percentage, = (birth – death rates) / 10 %.
7. The rate of the world’s annual population growth (naturally) dropped by 40% from 1963 to 2011.
8. Populations of developed countries is growing at 0.2%; developing countries, at 1.4% (7x faster).
9. The doubling time (in years) for a population to double = 70 / growth rate % (the rule of 70).
10. The three countries with the largest populations are: (1) China, (2) India, and (3) United States.
11. Fertility is the number of births that occur to an individual woman or in a population.
Replacement-level fertility, the # of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2+).
Total fertility rate (TFR), the average # of children a woman has (~2.5; highest in Africa).
12. Many factors affect a country’s average birth rate and TFR.
The importance of children as a part of the labour force (highest in developing countries).
The cost of raising and educating children (lower in developed countries as cost is high).
The availability of private and public pension systems (elderly do not rely on their children).
Urbanization (people in urban areas have family-planning services; they have fewer children).
Educational and employment opportunities available for women (TFRs are lower if educated).
The infant mortality rate (people have fewer children in areas with low infant mortality).
Average age at marriage (women have fewer children when getting married at the age 25+).
The availability of legal abortions (abortions reduce the number of children a woman has).
Religions, traditions, and cultural norms (eg, prefer large families, oppose abortion, etc).
The availability of reliable birth control methods (allows for control of number of children).
13. The rapid growth of the world’s population is caused by the decline of crude death rates.
14. Two indicators of overall health in a country are high life expectancy and low infant mortality rates.
15. Infant mortality is the best single measure of quality of life, reflecting nutrition and healthcare.
16. US mortality is high: (1) teenage mothers, (2) healthcare, (3) drug addiction when pregnant.
17. Immigration is crucial for the increasing growth of Canada’s population (supplying 2/3 of growth).
18. If current rates in Canada persist, the population will stabilize at 50 million by 2100.
19. The Aboriginal population in Canada now exceeds 1 million, growing twice as fast as the rest.
POPULATION AGE AND STRUCTURE
1. If the replacement-level fertility rate decreases, the world’s population will still grow for 50 years.
2. The reason is a population’s age structure: distribution of males and females in each age group.
3. Demographers plot the data in 3 categories: pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive.
4. The most important statistic: 27% (2 billion) of the people are 15 years old or under.
5. We live in a demographically divided world.
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