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Final Exam Review-Diversity of Vertebrates

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Queen's University
BIOL 202

Biology 202 Diversity of Life IIFinal ReviewLecture 1 IntroductionFossil evidence suggest that chordates originated 550myaPikaia graciilens seems tobe the earliest found vertebrate Some have argued that vertebrates are the product of survival of the luckiest as all of the animals at the time were well adapted to their environments and had similar proportions in the community Vertebrates probably originated by paedomorphosissexual maturation of the larval form of a urochordate like ancestor Underwent a duplication of the Hox genes which control development This was key in the development of vertebrates as it allowed them to form more complex and varied structures Lecture 2 Basics IEmbryogenesisdevelopment is unique and includes four main steps1 Cleavage the zygote divides to form a blastulaa fluidfilled ball cells at the top are small animal pole and cells at the bottom are larger and contain more yolkvegetal pole 2Gastrulation Cells of the blastula move inward at the blastopore to form a gastrula a fluid filled ball with three cell layers A endodermgut lining and derivatives germ cells B ectodermepidermis nervous system 3 Mesoderm everything elseThe 3 body aces are now defiend the blastopore will form the anus the mouth will form at the opposite endThe animal pole will form the back and the vegetal pole will form the abdomen Cells still lack differentiation but their fates have been determined 3 Neurulation dorsal mesoderm cells aggregate into a rodlike structure The notochord induces the dorsal ectoderm to fold forming the dorsal neural tubecentral nervous system and the neural crest cells other nervous system componentsMesoderm flanking the notochord becomes segmented into somitesSkeleton and skeletal muscles Pharyngeal pouches form along the pharynxgillsthyroid Ectodermal placodes form at the headeyes ears and nostrilsFinal product is the nerula or the pharyngula4 Organogensisembryonic cells specialize forming tissues organs and organ systems Differential cell divison growth and death results in different body shapes Organ Systems All vertebrates share many unique characteristics of each of the 10 organ systems1 Integumentary SystemFunctions in protection communication respiration excretionosmoregulation Includes two main layers the epidermisfrom ectoderm and the dermisfrom mesoderm Also contains bllod vessels nerves are mucous glands2 Skeletal System functions in support protection and movement Originally made of cartilage and included only the gill supports and axial skeletonnotochord cranium and vertebraeBone appeared early in vertebrate evolution Endochondrallaid down within contrilage and dermal laid down by the dermis 3 Muscular System functions in support and movement includes three muscle types A Smoothinvoluntary ususally visceral B Striated Skeletal usually somatic originally arranged in W shaped myomeresC cardiacheart Lecture 3 Basics II4 Digestive System Functions to realse nutrients from food process and store nuctients and neutralize toxinsOriginally included only the mouth pharynx esophagusstomach small intestineliver pancreatic cells and cloacaIntestinal lining is folded into villi and microvilli Food is moved through the gut by peristalsis 5 Respiratory Systems functions to exchange O2 CO2 heat salts and N wastes Originally involved the skin plus vascularized foldings of the pharynxgills with muscles for pumping water6 Circulatory system transports oxygennutrients wastes hormones antibodies and heat It is a closed originally single circuit Originally the heart had four chambers but only one atrium and one ventricleThe lymphatic system recovers fluid and nutrients lost from the capillaries7 Excretory Systems functions in osmoregulation and elimination of metabolic wastes Originally included the kidneys skingills and intestines The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron a tubule lined with specialized cells for filtering waste from blood The kidney develops sequentially from the somites Originally the pronephros srved in the embryo and the opisthonephros in the adult Nitrogenous wastes was probably originally eliminated as ammoniahighly soluble cheap to produce 8 Reproductive System function in production and release of gametes and may support developing embryos Gonads are multicellular female ovaries maletestes 9 Endocrine system functions in communication and coordination Information transfer is slow general and longlasting through chemical signalsinternal hormonesexternal pheromones Includes endocrineno ducts and exocrine ducts glands Orginigally included only the pituitarymaster gland pinealcoordinates dialy and
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