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Chem 112 Exam AID Course Pack (3).pdf

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Queen's University
CHEM 112
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CHEM 112 General ChemistryCourse Package Review Queens SOS Students Offering Support Authors Ethan Newton and Barry Zhang April 2012Contents10 Introduction NomenclatureStoichiometry 20 Atomic StructureQuantum ChemistryElectromagnetic radiationBlackbody radiationPhotoelectric effectBohr modelQuantum numbersPauli exclusion principle rules for filling orbitalsLewis Structures 30 Molecular StructureMolecular GeometriesPolar covalent bondingHybridizationMO diagrams 40 Gas LawsProperties of gases and ideal gasesIdeal Gas LawMaxwellBoltzmann DistributionEffusion and Grahams LawReal Gas Law 50 Phase TransitionsEquilibriumTroutens RuleClausiusClapeyron equationRelative HumidityPhase DiagramsIntermolecular Forces 60 SolutionsIntroductionAzeotropesColligative propertiesVapour pressure lowering boiling point elevation freezing point depressionOsmotic pressure 70 ThermodynamicsZeroth Law of ThermodynamicsFirst Law of ThermodynamicsSecond Law of ThermodynamicsEnthalpy of Thermodynamics 80 Practice Questions Fall Term 90 Chemical EquilibriaDefinitionsEquilibrium ConstantRelative Activity Ethan NewtonBarry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 2Reaction QuotientFactors effecting Equilibrium 100 Thermodynamics and EquilibriumRelationships between G and equilibrium 110 Acid and Base ChemistryDefinitionsStrong weak and polyprotic acidspH and pOH 120 Hydrolysis of SaltsDefinition of saltsEffects of salts in solution 130 Common Ion Effect and TitrationCommon Ion EffectBuffer solutionsAcidBase TitrationsIndicators 140 Electrochemistry 150 Organic Chemistry10 Introduction Nomenclature Valence Shell Electrons The most common number of valence shell electrons involved in bonding may be found using this guide Group IAIIAIIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII Valence1 2 34 3 210 Oxidation Numbers Loss of Electrons OxidationWhen electrons are lost on a given atom during bond formation it becomes POSITIVELY charged Gain of Electrons Reduction When an atom gains an electron during bond formation it becomes NEGATIVELY chargedWhen you are unsure of an elements oxidation number look it up on the periodic table Naming Compounds Binary CompoundsCompounds with two atoms bonded togetherFor convenience treat all compounds as ionic compounds even though many are covalent Compounds have no net charge Therefore positive and negative charges on ions have to balance one another Ethan NewtonBarry Zhang for SOS Winter 2012 3
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