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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLST 201
Professor
Christina Zaccagnino
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4 Nobility and the city of Rome - Openings of offices and priesthoods to plebeians that occurred during the 3 rd and 4 centuries resulted in the formation of a new governing elite in Rome - The elite, known as the “nobles” or (nobiles) would govern Rome through its period of expansion - Archaic Rome has been governed by relatively few individuals from a small group of families - The new nobility rested on its member’s ability to win offices and gain priesthoods - The word ‘nobilis’ designates an individual with an ancestor who has been chosen consul - Patricians as well as plebeians were now after a limited number of positions - The position of the new elite families was less secure than that of the patriciate of the past - In each generation, these officeholding families had to provide new and successful seekers of offices (families that didn’t do that had to drop out of the governing elite) - in hierarchys developed form, the offices were: queaestor  tribune of the plebs  edile  praetor  consul - the prohibition against holding the conrdlship more then once or twice became firmly established in the 3 century, and enabled 2 men to hold this office each year who had never done so before - some families filled out the lower offices for generations without ever acheieving a consulship nd rd - during the 2 and 3 century, the senate took on its leading role in the city, and these were a high point - this period was the senate’s “influence” or auctoritas peaked- when its direction of affairs won the highest respect - censors began to enroll primarily former officeholders - tribunes of the plebs gained the right to summon meetings of the senate, they also came to be enrolled in it after holding office - these 2 developments mark the integration of plebeian officials into the official order of the city - the senate was seen as a store of virtues, prestige and experience - laus: praise or fame - Gloria: glory - Roman public virtues were primarily military, and closely linked to the holding of offices - Higher offices earned a man higher esteem or dignity then the lower - Leading romans missed no opportunity to proclaim their merits and accomplishments and asserted their superiority over competitors - 2 and 3 century saw increasing elaboration of the citys ceremonial and religious life - chief celebration of victory in war was the triumph – a formal procession of a victorious general and his army through the city - the triumph was an old ceremony in rome - initially, the triumphal procession was a right intended to purify an army returning from battle or to thank the gods for a victory - in the late 3 and 4 century, under the influence of the ceremonies of the greek kingdoms to the east, the roman triumph became less a celebration by the community and the army than a glorification of the officeholder who had commanded the army - in the triumph, the victorious general (triumphator), accompanied by senators and officials, would lead his army through the city, together with prisoners - figure of the triumphator stood out because he wore the gold and purple costume of the old kings and painted his face to resemble the cult statue of Jupiter best and greatest in the on the Capitoline Hill, and rode a 4 hours chariot like the Gods - triumph was the most important ceremony any Roman could hope to perform - “fasti triumphales” – list of triumph winners would be put up for display in the city - victorious commanders waited outside the “pomerium” while the senate debated their accomplishments - when preparing for a battle, roman commanders made vows in where they promised new temples to favoured deities should they be successful - dozens of temples were built in prominent places because of this - portrait masks of wax (imagines) offered means of proclaiming the greatness of a family’s ancestor - romans kept masks of those who held high offices - funerals provided an opportunity to display the masks of officeholders in the past - first known gladiatorial games were staged during the funeral of Decimus rd Junius Brutus in 264, by the end of the 3 century, the sons of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus would put on combats with 22 pairs of gladiators wars with carthage - wars with carthage- called punic from the latin punicus meaning Phoenician - carthage was the most powerful city that had emerged from the phenician th colonization of the 9-6 century - carthage came to control a large territory in north Africa - by the end of the 4 century, Carthaginians controlled an area almost equivalent to Latium and Campania combined - carthage expanded its power and influence by sea th - by the end of the 7 century, the Phoenician settlement of western sicily, Sardinia, and Balearic islands were outranked to carthage - by the end of the 6 century: Carthaginians controlled coasts of Sardinia - to help with their struggles with the Sicilian greeks the Carthaginians made treaties with central Italian communities like Rome - first agreement was made in 500 first punic war (264-241) - in 264, war broke out between the romans and the Carthaginians as a result of a 3 way struggle between Carthage, Rome and Syracuse over the city of Messana (which controlled the straits between Italy and sicily) - Syracuse was the weakest of the 3 states, became an ally to Rome - In 262, a roman army advanced into western Sicily and besieged the greek city of Agrigentum where the Carthaginians had most of their forces - Romans and Carthaginians then entered a period of standstill - Carthage possessed one of the most powerful war fleets in the mediterannean - Roman commanders were able to bring armies across the straits between sicily and Italy but the Carthaginian fleet made it impossible for them to expel Carthaginian forces from sicily - Romans responded by building warships to challenge carthage at sea - Romans copied Carthaginians methods of construction for their warships - In 256, both consuls took the initiative of crossing from italy to north Africa with an army and a fleet to attack carthage - One of the consuls, Marcus Atilius Regulus, first proved successful but was then defeated and xaptured in 255 - Roman writers later turned this into a patriotic myth - Later on, the Carthaginians allowed Regulus to go to rome to negotiate a peace/exchange of prisoners, but he had to go back if he was unsuccessful - When the senate refused to negotiate, regulus returned to carthage where he later died showing romans good faith - After failed invasion of north Africa, warfare continued on land and sea for 15 years - In Sicily, Roman commanders started gaining advantage - In 241, the Carthaginians gave Hamilcar, their commander in Sicily authority to negotiate peace - The result was that they agreed to leave sicily and pay Rome a large compensation - At the end of the war, carthage had insufficient funds - A revolt was then launched against them which spread to some of Carthage’s Libyan and numidian allies. - During this crisis, roman officials forced carthage to abandon the strategic islands of Sardinia. - it was the victory of the first punic war that led to the creation of Rome’s first permanent commitments outside of Italy - by 227, the decision had been made to station troops permanently in Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica - the centuriate assembly elected 4 praetors for the first time, with the intention that one of them was regularly sent to Sicily, and another to Sardinia-corsica - these islands became the first of rome’s provinces outside the Italian peninsula - in 3 century wars, it was necessary to keep armies in the field over the winter and to be maintained in distant locations - elected officials arranged and performed the major rites and ceremonies of the city, they raised and led armies, they heard complaints and grated judgements in legal cases - sometimes the state needed supplies for building projects and the army. Under these circumstances, Roman officials would turn to private contractos (publicani) - some publicani were involved in equipping and supplying roman fleets and armies th - when romans first made use of high value coins (4 century), they relied on ones produced at irregular intervals by Campanian mints - they began to mint their own during the pyrrhic war second punic war - 218- 201 - broke out over Spain - Leadership of the Phoenician cities of the Iberian peninsula had been a major prop of Carthagininan power - Carthaginians used Iberian mercenaries to fight in their wars, Iberian gold and silver to pay to equip their soldiers and sailors and Iberian timber to build their ships - After the end of the first punic war, they attempted to extend their power in the peninsula and increase their resources - In 237, Hamilcar Barca, Carthage’s previous general in Sicily landed in spain and extended Carthaginian power there until his death in 229 - He was then succeeded by Hasrdubal, his son in law who governed until he died in 221. - Then, Hannibal Barca, Hamilcar’s son born in 247, became chief Carthaginian commander in Spain - In 218, after Hannibal had captured Saguntum (a town Rome claimed to be under its protection), Rome declared war - Rome’s leaders expected to be able to fight the war in Africa and psain - Romes control of the ssea meant that Hannibal could receive limited reinforcements by ship while in Italy - A bronze tablet that Hannibal erected in the south of Italy claimed that he has 12000 African and 8000 Iberian infantry and no more then 6000 cavalry - When Hannibal crossed the alps, he entered a region of warfare between Romans and Gauls. - His success continued to 217 - When he crossed the Apennines and invaded Etruria, Gaius Flaminius went to block him but Hannibal succeeded in destroying him - Quintus Fabius Maximus, who had been a consul twice was appointed a dictator - He harassed Hannibals army on the march - He was nicknamed the “delayer” – “Cunctator” - The consuls of 216 didn’t follow Fabius’ strategy, they marched against Hannibal with a combined army of Romans and allies that have 80,000 soldiers - The battle they fought at Cannae in Apulia was a disaster, one of the consuls died - The cities of Sabinum, Etruria and Umbria remained roman allies - In the south, many Samnites, Lucanians and Bruttii served as soldiers in Hannibals army or provided supplies for it - Capua in Campania, one of the largest cities in Italy and a Roman municipium also joined Hannibals alliance - In sicily, Syracuse declared for Hannibal - In 212, he captured Tarentum - After the defeat at Cannae, Roman commanders tried at avoid battle with Hannibals army, while limiting its freedom - In sicily, Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured Syracuse in 213 - 2 years later, capua fell and roman commander ordered executions of of the citys leading citiend and sold people into slavery - in 209, the romans recaptured Tarentum and enslaved its inhabitants - in 205, the senate consulted roman priests and the greek oracle at Delphi - both recommended bringing the great mother (magna mater) from her sanctuary in Asia minor to Rome - Magna mater’s cult image  a black meteorite - The cult of Magna mater centered on self castrated priests, and wild singing and dancing - Roman officials tried to isolate these priests from roman citizens and enacted laws preventing citizens from participating in this cult - In 217, the roman senate and citizen assembly ordered that a sacred spring be vowed in order to preserve the republic from disaster - Two brothers, Publius scipio and Gnaeus Scipio held command in Spain from the opening year of the war until their deaths in 211 - Roman voters then assigned the Spanish command to another Publius Corenlius Scipio, the son of Publius and newphew of Gnaeus - In 209, he captured Carthago Nova, a chief centre of Carthaginian power - Even though Hasdrubal, hannibals brother was defeated by scipio, the was then able to follow his brothers route into Italy and attempt to join their two armies - In 207, a the Metaurus River along
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