Geology Short Answer Questions.docx

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Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering
GEOL 106
John Hanes

Geology Short Answer Questions Risk Analysis - Understand the hazard - Determine the risk from that hazard for the region of interest Risk Management - Determine ways to reduce risk - Do a cost-benefit analysis - Implement mitigation techniques if warranted Discuss how we assess the seismic risk in an area. - Locate and determine nature of the hazard in the area - Study history of that hazard - Determine geologic/geographic factors in the area - Determine potential human interactions with the hazard in the area Discuss the measure we need to take to minimize damage from seismic activity in an earthquake-risk region. - Apply land use zoning - Apply stringent building codes - Attempt to predict earthquakes What are the three main factors that determine whether a landslide will occur or not? - Steepness - Rock material - Triggers Rocks can have joints. What are three things that can cause joints? - Release of pressure when rocks come to surface - Squeezing of rocks - Shrinking of igneous rocks What are the two main criteria used to name igneous rocks? - Grain size - Colour When magma comes out of the ground, it will be in one of these two forms: - Lava - Pyroclastic material Ethical framework for carrying out ESE require us to work towards two goals: - Sustainability - Equity What is the difference between porosity and permeability? - Porosity: ability to absorb water - Permeability: amount of liquid that can seep through What is the difference between mafic igneous rocks and felsic igneous rocks? - Mafic: low viscosity, dark, - Felsic: high viscosity, light What is the difference between normal faults and reverse faults? - Draw dip slip and reverse dip slip, pressure arrows Explain plate tectonics. - Plate tectonics explains how crustal plates move around the surface of the earth and allows geologists to find explanations from geological events such as earthquakes and volcanoes. The crust of the earth is separated into 10 major plates and a few smaller ones. There are 3 motions of plates: convergent (move towards each other), divergent (move away from each other) and transform (move along side each other) What is the concept of the Safety Factor in the context of slope stability? How does it relate to the probability of failure of the slope? - Safety factor is a measure of the stability of slope. It is the ration of the Maximum Resisting Force (force acting to prevent slope movement) to the Driving Force (the force acting to cause slope movement). Explain the various terms in the Safety Factor equation. - C= cohesion - w= weight of potential failure block - fish= angle of potential failure plain - circle with line through it= angle of internal friction Explain the importance water has in affecting the stability of slopes. What are the hazards associated with stratovolcanoes? - Tephra - Pyroclastic flow - Lahars - Tsunami - Gases What is it about the nature of stratovolcanoes and their magma that leads to the dangers that you have outlined? - High viscosity, high water content - Steep since “sticky” magma flows down sides - Violent eruptions Explain how ocean and continental crust is formed, indicating their genera
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