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HIST 209 Before First Test

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Queen's University
HIST 209
Peter Campbell

HIST 209 – Themes in Canadian History II Professor Peter Campbell Tues Jan 7/12 Intro Thurs Jan 9/14 The American Revolution, Loyalists, and the War of 1812 • History – the study of the past • Historiography – analysis of the way we study the past, how history is studied o How interpretations of events have changed over time • What affects how history is written or made? o Tends to be written by the winners; religion; ideology; language; ethnicity; geography; gender; class; sexual orientation; temporal distance; contemporary issues and their meanings, re-evaluation • Background to the Conquest (master narrative of survival) o 1608 – Founding of Quebec City o 1629 – Kirke brothers capture Quebec City  Possible that New France could have remained in British hands o 1632 – Quebec City returned to France o 1649 – Destruction of Huronia by Iroquois and the martyrdom of Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalement by the Iroquois, catholic priests who become heroes because of the threat of aboriginal peoples o 1650s-1660s – Iroquois Wars  225-250 French Canadians killed o 1689 – Lachine Massacre, attacked by Iroquois, 24 dead and 70 captured  After, French Canadians see as evidence of terrible native threat  But in 1687, French army had burned thousands of bushels of Iroquois corn • Ignored when talking about French Canadian history o 1690 – War of the League of Augsburg o 1690 – Unsuccessful English attempt to capture Quebec o 1713 – Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of the Spanish Succession; France cedes Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to the British o 1745 – Louisburg falls to the British during the War of the Austrian Succession o 1748 – Louisburg returned to France by the Treaty of Aux-la-Chapelle o 1754 – French and Indian War begins, raids down into New England  “Unofficial war”, in North America the 7 Years War is actually 9 years o 1755 – Deportation of the Acadians begins and continues until 1762  French Canadians in the Maritimes who went to New England, Europe, Louisiana (Cajuns)  Fear that arose after General Bradock’s defeat in the Ohio Valley  Would not swear a new oath of loyalty to Britain, tried to remain neutral • Those who refused to take the oath were deported, ~7000 o 30-35% of the deported died, could not find a place to stay o 1756 – Sever Years’ War begins o 1758 – British capture Louisburg (again) and Fort Frontenac (Kingston) o 1759 – Siege of Quebec, Battle of the Plains of Abraham, surrender of Quebec City  Siege took so long General Wolfe allowed raiding and burning  “” French can now enjoy benefits of British parliament and representation o 1760 – Capitulation of Montreal on Sept 8 o 1763 – Treaty if Paris and Royal Proclamation  Defined new borders of Quebec and Indian territory Tues Jan 14/14 The American Revolution, Loyalists, and the War of 1812 • The focus is on the loyalists and what they represent o Test will have a couple of questions about major historical events and individuals • The Quebec Act, 1774 o Transferred control of the Indian trade in the Ohio and Mississippi region to Quebec o British realized that they must accommodate the French, cannot kick them out  Recognized French civil law and the right to practice Catholicism in Quebec  Frightened American Protestants into believing that the British government was trying to create a hostile Catholic province to their north and west • One of the Intolerable Acts committed by the British • The American Revolution, 1775-83 (The First American Civil War - Bumsted) o The Battle of Lexington and Concord, April 1775 o American troops capture Montreal on Nov 13, 1775 o Americans defeated at the battle of Quebec, Dec 31, 1775 o American retreat, May-June 1776 o Declaration of Independence, 1776 o General Cornwallis surrenders to General George Washington, Yorktown, Virginia, 1781  Militarily, British have lost the war o Beginning of Loyalist exodus from New York, Sept 1782 o Treaty of Paris signed with Great Britain, 1783 o Molly Brant arrived in Kingston, 1783 • Constitutional Act, 1791 o Brought about by arrival of loyalists o Divided Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada o The Act created a bicameral legislature in each province, with a Legislative Council appointed by the governor, and an elected Assembly • Upper Canada, 1791-1812 o American settlers, or the so-called “late Loyalists”, outnumber immigrants from the British Isles by four to one by 1812 o The “oligarchy” running Upper Canada fears the political implications of American immigration, associating American-style democracy with “levelling” and “mob rule” o 1804, Sedition Act made disaffection with the government punishable by exile  Uncertain about loyalty of American settlers, believed many were just looking for land, had no deep political connection with British crown • War of 1812 o President James Madison declares war of Great Britain, June 1812  British had blockaded American ships and taken soldiers, and the expansionist idea (Manifest Destiny, though term did not exist yet)  Country divided, not everyone wanted war, especially not New England o General William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit to British and Indian forces led by General Isaac Brock and Shawnee leader Tecumseh, Aug 1812 o Brock dies during defeat of American forces at the Battle of Queenston Heights, Oct 1812 o Laura Secord took her long walk to warn Lieutenant Fitzgibbon of impending American attack, leading to a British and Indian victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 24, 1813  Fitzgibbon’s Mohawk allies may have already told him the Americans were coming; Laura Secord’s 30km trek likely a myth o General William Henry Harrison defeated the British and their Indian allies at the Battle of the Thames (Moraviantown)  Death of Tecumseh, Oct 1813 o December 1814, Treaty of Ghent formally ends hostilities o American forces under the leadership of Andrew Jackson  Became Democratic president in 1828, defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans Jan 8, 1815 • This was the most famous battle of the War of 1812, but took place after the war was over (messages travel slow) • The Politics of Loyalism o The “loyalty question” in Upper Canada emerged after the War of 1812 o In Upper Canada, the war distinguished the “loyal” from the “disloyal”  1819, Robert Gourlay banished under Sedition Act o The Canadian oligarchy, known as the Family Compact, was able to appropriate Loyalism in the cause of anti-Americanism and legitimizing their rule  The elite justified repression of political opponents as necessary to the maintenance of order, “social harmony” (Bumsted) o Some black loyalists chose to go back to Africa  Indicates the desperation they faced in Nova Scotia, that they would cross the Atlantic Ocean again • Reading (Shelton, 1965) o Shift in perception of who the loyalists were, from being portrayed as upper- class, male, white, Anglo-Celtic, strongly monarchist and anti-revolutionary, anti- American  Now shown as including poor, women, Aboriginal, African-American – tended to belong to minorities in the regions they came from • “Indians” and “Negroes”- language just starting to change • Does not integrate their experiences into his definition of who the loyalists are o Started by saying the loyalists were non-violent, said evolution over revolution resulted from loyalists o At the end, comes back to basic stereotypes (evolution over revolution, patience over impatient violence), returning to standard readings • Master narratives o Canada as nation of peace-keepers  Americans are the fighters, we are the peace-makers o Peace, order, and good government  As opposed to American-style democracy (read mobocracy) o We are not Americans  Emerged more from war of 1812 than from the loyalists • Characterization of loyalists as anti-American untrue, they are Americans in many respects o Nation of losers  Loyalists lost, made their way to Canada o Survival  Especially in first year, living in tents, life hard for loyalists o Canada as a nation of warriors  Loyalists fought for right to separate nation o Colony to nation o Unity and diversity  A history of multiculturalism, diversity of the loyalists Thurs Jan 16/14 The Rebellions of 1837-38 in Upper Canada • Increasing Partisan Grievances in BNA o Issue of responsible government  In Lower Canada, the Chateau Clique; in Upper Canada, the Family Compact • Too much democracy is a bad thing, must keep British system o Councils not responsible to the assembly • In Lower Canada, those with power are mostly Anglophone  Reformers want to give the elected assembly more power over Councils • Clergy Reserves in Upper Canada sold to pay expenses o Land allocated to Anglican Church o Other groups do not believe money should go to Anglicans o Sedition Act of 1804  Makes banishment the punishment for encouraging disaffection against the government  Prescribes the death sentence for anyone charged under the act who refuses to leave the province o August 1819, banishment of Robert Gourlay  Becomes “a martyr who had been ruthlessly broken by an arrogant oligarchy” • Political Turmoil in BNA and the Move to Violence o Meetings of reformers occur and become increasingly radical  Others think American democracy is wrong, violently break up meetings and intimidate those trying to vote o Patriot Party in Assembly passes 92 Resolutions  92 problems sent to colonial office, comes back in 10 Resolutions denying most of their decisions and takes away power from the Lower Canadian Assembly • Government starting to be seen as illegitimate o 1820, William Lyon Mackenzie arrives in Canada o 1824, Mackenzie founds the Colonial Advocate election of Tory government o 1826, a band of young Tories smashes Mackenzie’s printing press, Types Riot  Mackenzie had been attacking Upper Canada government leaders o 1828, election of Reform government, Mackenzie wins election in York o 1829, Sedition Act repealed o 1830, Tory majority government o 1834, Reform majority government o 1836  January, new lieutenant governor Sir Francis Bond Head arrives in Toronto • Considers Reformers to be “evil disloyal republicans”  May 28, Bond Head dissolves the Assembly and calls a new election, Tories win • Reformers blame their defeat on election corruption • The Rebellion of 1837 o Begins in area around Montreal, Summer and Fall people are resigning from, or being forced out of, the government  People begin to be appointed at local parish meetings, not by British o Fighting not revolutionary; for two months, the Montreal area governed itself  British authority stopped at St Lawrence because no one had power anymore o Colonial government must reassert power, arrest 2 Patriots to put them on trial  Ambushed and freed, army marches into Patriot camp in bad weather (Nov 23) • After 6 hours of fighting, British retreat; Patriots decimated 2 days later o November 15, Mackenzie publishes a proposed constitution for an independent Upper Canada, will rise along with Lower Canada  December 1, Mackenzie issues a circular calling on the people to take up arms • All troops but militia from Upper Canada had been sent to Lower o December 4-5, 500 rebels gather at Montgomery’s Tavern, north of Toronto o December 7, rebels are routed and Montgomery’s Tavern is burned  December 12, massive rising, but as they get ready news about failures and incoming colonial troops quashes it before it happens • The Patriot War and the 1838 Rebellion o Many rebel leaders escape to the US, become very popular  Occupy Navy Island above Niagara Falls, declare the Republic of Upper Canada • British burned the boat used to go back and forth, story greatly embellished, seen as attack on Americans o Americans decide to attack the British o Spring and Summer, filibustering – invading a country without own country’s approval  Number of small invasions, all failures o Secret society, the Patriot Hunters (Frères Chasseurs), based on oaths and ritual  Small fights and invasions, little accomplished (Prescott, Windsor) • Response of the State, How it was Put Down o 53 rebels are tried in the spring  April 12, Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews are hanged  20 rebels are convicted and transported to Australia, 31 are released o June raid results in one rebel hanging, 3 imprisonments, 17 deportations o November, militia repulse a rebel raid in a bloody battle at Prescott o December, raiders cross the Detroit River near Windsor and kill several militiamen  25 rebels killed, Colonel John Prince summarily executes 5  12 rebels from the Windsor and Prescott raids are later hanged • Narratives o Rebellions were good, inspired Durham Report and led to responsible government o Not good or bad, but rise of modern, bureaucratic, capitalist state o Rebellions were great, revolt of the people against the ruling class and system Tues Jan 21/14 Confederation • 1839 o Durham Report published in February o Lord Durham describes the colonies as “two nations warring in the bosom of a single state” and recommends uniting the Canadas o French Canadian nationalists see Durham’s proposal as a poorly disguised attempt to assimilate French Canadians • 1841 – Act of Union o Kingston becomes the capital of the united Canadas o Canada West and Canada East send 42 members each to the united legislature  The population of Canada West is 450,000; East Canada is 650,000 o For the next 10 years, “representation by population” will not be an issue  Equal members despite population differences, but French Canadians underrepresented not seen as an issue • 1842-3 o Robert Baldwin’s Reformers in Canada West develop a working alliance with Louis-Hyppolite Lafontaine’s Reformers in Canada East to control a majority in the Legislature Assembly • 1844-7 o Tories in Canada West and Bleus in Canada East fail to create an alliance able to maintain a majority in the Legislative Assembly • 1848 o Reformers sweep the elections in both Canadas o Baldwin and Lafontaine form the new Executive Council, now effectively a party cabinet  The governor effectively withdraws from domestic politics  Achievement of responsible government • “Colony to Nation” narrative • 1849 o April 25, Governor General Lord Elgin signs the Rebellion Losses Bill  Compensates those whose property was destroyed during the 1837-8 Rebellions • English outrage, majority of destruction was in Lower Canada, see as a reward for treason o April 26, Tory mob burns the Parliament Buildings in Montreal o October 11, Annexation Manifesto is issued  Calls on the citizens of Canada to join the United States • 1851 o Census reveals that the population of Canada West is now greater than the population of Canada East  Now it is a huge injustice, must have rep by pop o Rise of the Clear Grits in Canada West threatens the English-French reform alliance created by Baldwin and Lafontaine  Baldwin and Lafontaine both retire • 1853 o A motion put forward by George Brown and his supporters calling for representation by population is defeated by the French Canadian members and their allies in Canada West o By now, English-speaking conservatives such a John A. Macdonald are moving in the direction of an alliance with moderate English and French speaking liberals  It can be argued that the alliance was more bound together by a common commitment to economic development than by a shared political ideology o Georges-Etienne Cartier emerging as spokesperson for French Canada • 1856 o Macdonald is able to create a coalition of moderates with Bleus of French Canada led by Cartier o George Brown contemplates the creation of a federal union as a way of escaping the political deadlock in his paper The Globe • 1859 o By the spring, George Brown has come to the conclusion that “the establishment of a Canadian federal system is the only remedy for the existing evils” o In November, Brown proposes a plan for a federal union • 1861, American Civil War begins • 1864 o Formation of the Great Coalition of Macdonald’s Conservatives, Cartier’s Bleus, and George Brown’s Grits o September, Charlottetown Conference o October, Quebec Conference  Met for three weeks, an agreement reached for representation by population and peace, order, and good government for the citizens  Constitution to protect rights and interests in all provinces • 1865 o Pro-Confederation government of Leonard Tilley defeated in New Brunswick • 1866 o The Fenians, Irish Americans seeking Ireland’s independence from Great Britain, invade Canada in June  The Fenian menace (real and imagined) is used to argue that uniting the Canadas and the Maritime provinces will make mutual defense possible  In New Brunswick, Leonard Tilley’s pro-Confederation Conservatives ride fear of the Fenians to an election victory o Charles Tupper’s Nova Scotia government votes in favour of Confederation o November, London Conference works out final version of what would become the British North America Act  Macdonald almost burns to death in his hotel room • 1867 o March, Queen Victoria signs the BNAAct into law o Confederation proclaimed on July 1 Thurs Jan 23/14 • Test o 20 multiple choice questions o Last question from Bumsted reading for Tuesday’s class o No questions asking for a specific date, but questions asking what happened in that year Nation Building • 1869-70 – Red River Rebellion (Riel’s first rebellion) o Fight for Metis rights • 1870 – Manitoba joins Confederation out of the Red River Rebellion o Postage stamp province • 1871 – British Colombia joins Confederation o Promised a railroad, negotiates carried out by Cartier • 1873 o PEI joins Confederation o Conservative government resigns due to Pacific Scandal  Macdonald taking large sums of money from railway builders and giving to Conservative Party • 1874 – Liberals under Alexander Mackenzie take office in January o Created RMC, the Secret Ballot, and the Supreme Court of Canada • 1878 – Conservatives return to power • 1878-9 – National Policy o Transcontinental railway, tariff protection, and Western settlement  At the time, only meant tariffs, no evidence that Macdonald thought all three should go together as nation-building plan  Textile industry and farm equipment providers the greatest beneficiaries • 1882 – Conservatives under Macdonald return to power • 1885 o Northwest Rebellion (Riel’s second rebellion for Metis rights and others)  Execution of Louis Riel on Nov 16 • Nationalist reaction in Quebec, elect Liberal Mercier o Until 1958, there are periods where not one Conservative is elected in Quebec federal politics o Completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway (Nov 7 or 11) • 1887 – Macdonald’s Conservatives return to power in federal election • 1891 – death of Sir John A. Macdonald • 1896 – Liberal leader Wilfrid Laurier becomes Canada’s first French Canadian Prime Minister • 1899-1902 – Boer War o French Canadian nationalists do not want to get involved, English Canadian nationalists want to send an army  Laurier’s compromise: Canada sends nearly 5000 volunteers to fight for Britain • 1905 – Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta formed out of Northwest Territories • 1906 – creation of Ontario Hydro (symbolizes move towards public utilities) • 1911 o Conservatives under Robert Borden defeat Laurier’s Liberals o Liberal proposal for reciprocity (free trade) with the Americans is defeated • 1914 o Canada and Newfoundland enter the Great War in August, same time as Britain  At beginning, unanimity in House of Commons in support of war effort • French Canadians encouraged to enlist, necessary defense of England and France, would be back in time for Christmas o 30,000 troops cross Atlantic in September, enter the trenches o Passage of the War Measures Act  Allows the federal government to do what it wants in times of war • 1915 o Second Battle of Ypres  Canadian troops endure chlorine gas attack • 1916 o Manitoba first province to give women the right to vote o Battle of the Somme, July 1  Decimation of the Newfoundland Regiment at Beaumont Hamel  720/1000 dead in first day, after whole battle only gained 13km • 1917 o Battle of Vimy Ridge, 9 April 1917  Led by General Arthur Currie • Used elaborate system of tunnels, railway for supplies • Creeping barrage, “Vimy glide” used to slowly move forward  70,000 Canadian troops took ridge in matter of hours, 3598 dead • Greatest success since the start of the war, everything according to plan  Characterized as defining moment in Canadian nationalism • Went in to the war as a colony and emerged as a nation o Nation of warriors in the name of peace o Passchendaele (Third Battle of Ypres), fought in July o August  Military Voters Act gave the vote to all members of the armed forces, regardless of how long they had lived in Canada  Military Service Act invoked Conscription; Conscription Crisis o September, Wartime Elections Act gave the vote to Canadian women who were the wives, widows, sisters, and mothers of servicemen o December 17, 1917 – election of a Unionist government  Included Liberals who joined Conservatives to create the coalition  Wilfrid Laurier and William Lyon Mackenzie King did not join the coalition • 1918 o April, Easter Weekend, troops fired on and killed 4 (or 5) anti-conscription protestors in Quebec City  Quebec was a wasteland for the federal Conservative Party for the next 40 years, until Diefenbaker landslide victory in 1958 o End of the Great War on 11 November o Borden: Canada’s sacrifice in the war must be recognized  Pushed for recognition at the Paris Peace Conference • Opposition came from US, representatives from colonies would strengthen Britain’s position o Borden reminded US that Canada had lost more men because the US had entered later than Canada • Won representation as a power in its own right, and membership in the League of Nations general assembly o Spanish Influenza epidemic  Worldwide, killed as many as or more than the War • 4 conceptions of Canadian identity in this period o Imperial Federation  Based in our allegiance to the British Empire, see themselves as part of a worldwide empire including Australia, South Africa, India, New Zealand, etc.  No contradiction between being Canadian and being British • Identified as colony until the late 1940s o Goldman Smith – Continentalism  Absorption in to the US is the solution • Lines of trade are north-south, acknowledge inevitability o Henri Bourassa – Bicultural Canadian Nationalism  Bicultural, bilingual Canada o Traditional French Canadian Nationalism  Worldview centred on Quebec itself Tues Jan 28/14 TEST The Winnipeg General Strike • September 1918, Trades and Labour Congress in Quebec City o Basic split between labour in the west and in the east, west’s ideas too radical  Radicalization of labour in western Canada, BC and Alberta passing resolutions in favour of worker control of industry and general strike • Step towards industrial unions, all workers in workplace in same union  Men like RB Russell and Dick Johns working to include Eastern Europeans • March, 1919, Western Labour Conference o Decision to create One Big Union of all workers  Not organized until June 1919, during the General Strike o Sends greetings of congratulations to Bolsheviks and pass resolution in favour of the dictatorship of the proletariat • From 1915, number of annual strikes increases every year, peak year in 1920 • May 1, 1919 o Metalworkers and workers in the building trades go on strike o In the following days, the Winnipeg Trades and Labour Council organizes a vote of the remaining unionized workers on launching a general strike  Hello Girls (telephone operators) the first to walk out o Some 11,000 unionized workers vote to support a general strike, with only 500 opposed • May 15, 1919 o Winnipeg unionists, including police officers, fire fighters, telephone and telegraph operators, and deliverymen, go on strike o They are joined by thousands of non-unionized workers  Some 30-35,000 workers are now on strike in a population of 175,000 citizens o In the ensuing days the workers create a strike committee to organize the strikers and to provide essential services o Business leaders see this committee as usurping established authority, and charge it with being the precursor to the creation
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