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HLTH200 Exam Review 4 (Strength Training)

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Health Studies
HLTH 200
Melody Torcolacci

Strength Training 12/21/2012 9:17:00 AM Strength Training  The ability to apply force  F = M x a  F = m x A  Mass x Acceleration o Either add force o Or add acceleration  Different methods produce different training outcomes o Different neural, muscular, and metabolic processes are involved  Need specificity  Periodized/Planned programs produce greater gains in o Max Strength  Regardless of body weight o Relative Strength  Relative to body weight o Lean body mass Why Strength Is Important  All activity requires some strength  Strength training can improve performance faster than doing the skills on their own  Strength provides foundation o Endurance, agility, coordination, balance o Cannot do these activities without strength training  All aspects of fitness influence function and functional movements  Strength is health protective o Independent of other factors such as BMi, Aerobic fitness, and muscle mass  Inverse relationship with strength and mortality risk o Those who have higher strength have lower mortality rates  Thinner individuals exhibit o Lower strength o More illness o Greater mortality  Than those who have normal body weight  Those with lowest grip strength had greater risk for thoe with high grip strength Health Benefits of Weight Training  May enhance cardiovascular health o Results from multiple sets of large muscle mass exercize o Moderate to high reps on short rest  Decrease resting blood pressure o Only for those in hypertensive cases o Not for those with normal blood pressures  Decrease exercise heart rate o Resting heart rate decreases 3 – 10 %  Increase in VO2 o Weight trainers who do little or no aerobic exercise have higher oxygen intake  Improvements in blood lipid profile o Reductions in total cholesterol o If on steroids, you will see no change  Improvements in glucose in those with diabetes o Insulin sensitivity improvements is greater with strength training than aerobic training o Increases glucose tolerance by increasing glucose transport into muscle during and following the exercise o Increases lean body mass  Short rest does not increase exercise endurance o Cannot rest shorter than < 1.5 minutes  Produces body composition change o Increases lean body mass and produces decreases in relative percentage of body fat  During weight exercise triglycerides decrease o More use of fats o More calories burned  Lower risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing fat in abdominal region  Regular participation in weight training produces lower body fat o Greater than aerobic  Increase in bone mineral density o High loads = intensity o Work vertebra, hips o Multi joint, squats  Increases in metabolic rates o Increase in lean body mass o Loss of fat eating more o Daily energy utilization increased  If you gain muscle, you should increase calories o Need high loads and intensity o Use large muscle masses o Multi joint  Highest energy expended  Increases in GI transit  Reduces anxiety and depression o Overall psychological well being  Improvements in arthritis  Improves functional capacity o Improvements in muscular strength provide greater reserve and reduce demands on musculoskeletal, CV, and metabolic systems  Makes typical tasks less stressful  No negative effect on immune system  Reduces risk of energy during participation in other activities o Weight training reduces rate and seriousness of injury in other activities o Strengthens all systems, muscles and ligaments to prevent injury  Only high intensity and free weights develop and maintain joint strength How Much Strength Is Required  2.5 x resistence is to be encountered  Strength Reserve o Difference between absolute strength and the strength required to perform an activity  Strength capability needs can exceed acitivity demands, it can be applied in a functional manner o Increases efficiency o Decreases injury risk  You can never be strong enough Types of Strength  Max strength / Absolute Strength o Represents entire contracting potential of the muscle o Defined by the contraction type used to elicit it  1 RM o Repetition maximum o The most weight that can be lifted at once  Potential to apply force is 2x higher than regular performance o Fear limits performance o Turn off mind  Max isometric Contraction o Tension is developed but not external movements or joint angle change o Agonist and antagonist are both shorted  Max Concentric Contraction o Tension developed o Shortening muscle, causing movement o Up movement from bicep curcle  Max Eccentric Contraction o Muscle lengthens producing tension o Down movement of bicep curcle o Eccentric contractions  Controlling speed of movements  Generates highest force of contraction  50% greater than concentric  You can lower more than you can lift up o 2 Types of Eccentric Strength  both needed for complete strength development  Slow Eccentric Strength  Not being pushed, just being lowered  120+ of 1-RM  Uses more strength being lowered, can lower more strength than pulling up  Shifts curve to the left  Fast Eccentric Strength/ Plyometrics  Fast is better  Shifts curve to the right  Produces extreme muscle soreness  Not for beginners  Contraction Strength Continuum  Eccentric is stronger than Isometric  Concentric is stronger than both o True strength is how much you can lift up How Many Days of Weights  2 days a Week o Minimum to make gain o No need for hard, medium, easy, they are well spaced out  Presses o If presses are done in different planes, different muscles are being used  Both presses must be in the same plane  3 days a week would mean you have a higher total training volume o Need HEM for 3 days a week  Option 1 – Manipulate Sets or Intensity  Hard day has most sets  Easy day has least sets  Always make sure you have the mimimum sets appropriate for the reps you are using  For beginner  Intensity is ideal  When advanced  High intensity  High volume  When manipulating intensity  Easy day is 10% less o HEM = 60%, 50%, 55% o Sets = 5, 3, 4  Manipulating sets produces greater intensity than intensity on its own  Option 2 – Change Exercise  Rule 1  Everything has to be worked twice a week  Back squat is stronger than split squat  Option 3 – Partial Split Routine  Smaller muscles fatigue quicker but recover quicker  Larger muscles can do more work before fatiguing but need more recovery time  Full body, Lower, Upper  Upper body must go in middle if doing every other day  Because of prefatigue, do lower body before upper body on consecutive days Exercise Order  Stabilization  Dynamic midsection  Squats  Presses pushes, pulls, upper back  Supplemental  Traditional midsection 4 Day Weights  Lower body comes first on consecutive work out days  Upper back supports squats o If upper back is fatigued, then squat is comprimized o Increases injury risk  If consecutive days, lower body comes first  If there are days between workouts, upper body can come first 6 days of Weight Training  Monday – Lower body first, midsection  Tuesday – presses Triceps  Wed – Upper body  Thursday – Rest o Upper body is fatiqued  Option 2 o Monday – Lower o Tuesday – Upper o Wed – triceps and presses o Thurs Lower body o Friday upper  Functional Training o The brain thinks movement o Not specific muscles  Muscles and joints all work together cooperatively  No joint or body part works in isolation  Single joint single plane o Promotes injury due to increase strength imbalance  Complex movements o More functional o Mutli joint combined  Utopian progression Sequence o Body weight before external loading o Dumbbells before barbells  Machines are usually not functional o Can be appropriate to persons needs o Not superior to free weights in achieving gains  Just because an exercise is hard does not mean it is functional o Functional has nothing to do with difficulty  Unstable Surfaces o No evidence of improved performance o Less weight is lifted o Movement is slower o Strength gain is less  Free weights = value o More exercises is better o More diverse is beneficial  Different exercises = transfer  Different exercise = dynamic performance o Free weights allow for integration of movement  Greater complexity  Machines do not o Free weights train more muscle  Stabilizes  Agonists, antagonists Exercise Selection – Squats  From a health perspective there is no need for 2 squats in the same workout o If having 2 squats in one workouts  One function  The other range of motion  Single leg, Partial single leg, Double leg o Ordering  Order is dictated by workout  Always do heavy loads first  Prefatigue  Cant load heavy after o Transfer is better with SL and PSL than Double Leg o Functional Continuum  Light to heaviest o Loading Continuum  Heavy to lightest  Leg Press o Low transfer o Not specific  Produces high knee stress  Makes legs stronger but does not enhance BMD  Only useful for overloading legs o Better choice  Do standing  Dumbells vs. BarBells o Bilateral Deficit  The sum of training effect of left side and right side greater than the whole together o Dumbbells have positive transfer  Single arm and bilateral movements  Produce greater activation of motor units  Allow greater range of motion  Increases flexibility  Joint stabilization  Bench press o Change in hand position = change in recruitment  Different stress on joints and muscles o Wide grip  Pectoral dominant o Narrow Grip  Triceps dominant  More elbow stress o Semi supinated (praying)  Produces least shoulder stress  Overhead Press – Dumbull Shoulder Press o Safest to do standing o If done seated, 10x more lower back stress o Knees must be flexed to protect back o Stable base  Never lower bar behind head  Shoulder stress  Pinching nerves o Only need one press in workout  Pick the most transferable plane o For multiple presses in a workout  1 barbell, 1 dumbell that train different planes o multiple presses  Equals multiple pulls  Must maintain agonist antagonist balance  Upperback Pulls o Do pull that is opposite of press o Keep balance within the workout o 5 presses equals 5 pulls o You can have more pulls than presses  Never more presses than pulls  Shortening is better than stretching o Front half dominance is problem for most  Hunched over  Stronger upper back and no
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