PSYC 235 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Autism, Developmental Psychopathology

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Published on 7 Aug 2012
Department
Course
Normal and Abnormal Development
Developmental psychopathology is the study of how disorders arise and change with time.
These changes usually follow a pattern, with the child mastering one skill before acquiring the
next. This aspect of development is important, because it implies that any disruption in the
acquisition of early skills will also disrupt the development of later skills.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
The primary characteristics of people with ADHD are a pattern of inattention (such as not
paying attention to school work or work tasks) or hyperactivity-impulsivity, or both. These
deficits can significantly disrupt academic efforts and social relationships.
Learning Disorders
DSM groups the learning disorders as reading disorder, mathematics disorder, and disorder of
written expression. All are defined by performance that falls far short of expectations based on
intelligence and school preparation.
Verbal or communication disorders seem closely related to learning disorders. They include
stuttering (a disturbance in speech fluency), expressive language disorder (very limited
speech in all situations but without the types of cognitive deficits that lead to language
problems in people with mental retardation or a pervasive developmental disorder), selective
mutism (refusal to speak despite having the ability to do so), and tic disorders (include
voluntary motor movements such as head twitching and vocalizations such as grunts that
occur suddenly, in rapid succession, & in very idiosyncratic or stereotyped ways.
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
People with pervasive developmental disorder all experience trouble progressing in language,
socialization, and cognition. The use of the word pervasive means these are not minor
problems (like learning disabilities) and are conditions that significantly affect how
individuals live.
Autistic disorder (or autism) is a childhood disorder characterized by significant impairment
in social interactions, gross and significant impairment in communication, and restricted
patterns of behaviour, interest and activities. It probably does not have a single cause; instead,
a number of biological conditions may contribute, and these, in combination with psychosocial
influences, result in the unusual behaviours displayed by ppl with autism.
Asperger’s disorder is characterized by impairment in social relationships and restricted or
unusual behaviours or activities, but it does not present the language delays observed in
people with autism.
Rett’s disorder, mostly restricted to females, is a progressive neurological disorder
characterized by constant hand-wringing, mental retardation & impaired motor skills.
Childhood disintegrative disorder involves severe regression in language, adaptive
behaviour, and motor skills after 2 to 4 years of normal development.
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is a childhood
disorder characterized by significant impairment in communication, and restricted patterns of
behaviour, interest and activities. These children are similar to those with autism but may not
meet the age criterion or may not meet the criteria for the other symptoms.
Mental Retardation
The definition of mental retardation has three parts: significantly subaverage intellectual
functioning, concurrent deficits or impairments in present adaptive functioning and an onset
before the age of 18.
Down syndrome is a type of mental retardation caused by the presence of an extra 21st
chromosome. It is possible to detect the presence of Down syndrome in uteri through a
process known as amniocentesis.
Two other types of mental retardation are common: fragile X syndrome, which is caused by a
chromosomal abnormality of the tip of the X chromosome, and cultural-familial retardation,
which is thought to be caused by a combination of psychosocial and biological factors.
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Document Summary

Developmental psychopathology is the study of how disorders arise and change with time. These changes usually follow a pattern, with the child mastering one skill before acquiring the next. This aspect of development is important, because it implies that any disruption in the acquisition of early skills will also disrupt the development of later skills. The primary characteristics of people with adhd are a pattern of inattention (such as not paying attention to school work or work tasks) or hyperactivity-impulsivity, or both. These deficits can significantly disrupt academic efforts and social relationships. Dsm groups the learning disorders as reading disorder, mathematics disorder, and disorder of written expression. All are defined by performance that falls far short of expectations based on intelligence and school preparation. Verbal or communication disorders seem closely related to learning disorders. People with pervasive developmental disorder all experience trouble progressing in language, socialization, and cognition.

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