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[PSYC 251] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (106 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 251
Professor
Elizabeth Kelley
Study Guide
Final

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Queen's
PSYC 251
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Week 1:
1.1. Key reasons: Why should we study developmental psychology?
To learn first hands how we raise the children.
-Children don’t come with a manual (many books are by people with no
credentials)
-Discipline often a big question (One big question is how do I discipline
my child? Ex. Corporate punishment- physical like spanking… Children
will remember the punishment but not why they are punished. Physical
punishment doesn’t teach them what the proper behavior is.)
-Inductive parenting best (Ex. telling the kid what they have done is not
right, but not yelling at them angrily. Not hitting but explaining to them
why they did something wrong and how they can do better in future)
-Turtle technique quite effective (for children with emotional regulation
difficulty some kid are quicker to anger. This technique: squad down in
a position like turtle, head inside. Think about why am I so upset, how can
I control this upset, can I calm down first before I do anything that I might
regret later… once they are calmed, they can come out of turtle shell and
explain to others why they are angry…etc..
Choosing social policies. (Deve Psyc can be used positively to change
policies). Help society choose policies to better children welfare.
-Should children be held back or passed? (It was much more common to
held back a child in the past. Now is less because people are afraid of
hurting the child’s self-esteem and make them less willing to try. But
research has shown that if passing a child to the next year without having
them learned the material, it doesn’t help with self-esteem as well)
-How effective is health education? (found that hazard of smoking, drink
driving teaching is much more effective).
-Should children be allowed to testify? (Do they understand truth from
lies, the difference between imagination and reality).
-Children more prone to leading questions than adults. Thus need to be
very careful in how you question them in legal situations. But they can
distinguish between imagination and reality and for the most part, able to
testify. Just need to watch how you question them).
-Compliance issues and imagination.
Understanding human nature.
-How do our experiences shape us? (importance of nature and nurture;)
-Romanian orphanage adoptees (graph: IQ test scores of children adopted
in Britain. Orange is normal child adopted in Britain, high IQ 117. Next is
113 IQ is adoptee adopted at 0-6month. 100 IQ is adopted between 7-
24months; IQ 92 is 25-42months. Average IQ of these kids dropped for
each later periods that they were adopted. This is because the brain can
only make up for so much early maltreatment. *The orange bar of healthy
adopted British children IQ is higher than average, because families who
adopt them are upper class family who wanted a child. They are more
willing to provide for them).
-Timing of experiences influences their effects.
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1.2. Historical influencesWhat are the historical foundations of the study
of child development?
Plato-kids are born with conceptual knowledge. (Knowledge is innate
NATURE and there from birth. Just need to be explored and uncovered).
Aristotle-all knowledge arises from experience (opposite from Plato,
NURTURE.)
Locke-tabula rasa and setting good examples (more in-lined with
Aristotle’s theory. Need to be careful about our children and be good
examples for them to follow)
Rousseau- children learn from their own interactions with the world-no
formal education before age 12. (Child need to explore the world for their
own, similar to Piaget).
-Throughout history, children were not seem as much different from adults.
-Middle ages: Child are dressed the same as adults, participated in adult persuits
and in courts.
-1800s: Child deve study become more popular--- child in industrial world were
put into work in the factory. Often put into some dangerous position due to small
body size. They can fit into smaller gaps in mine… dark places… *Social reform of
1800s changed all of that.
-Now adays, in many places in the world, children are still treated as miniature of
adults as in Africa put in war…
-Began in 8s’ the research of Child deve.
-Effected by 2 forces:
1. Social reform movement (mvmt undertook fighting for better working
conditions for children and adults during the revolution)
2. Theory of Evolution (Idea that ontogeny reflected phyologenydeve of child
reflect deve of evolution). Darwin wants to show that child deve in similar way
that species evolve. Since been disproven, but Darwin was influential in thinking
about how to look at child deve, first individual to write about baby diary
development.
-Freud and John B. Watson influential: Freud in terms of the importance of
parenting to child deve; Watson being one of earliest behavior psychologist on
study of little Albert.
1.3. Key themes. Seven major themes that will run throughout the course.
1. Nature AND Nurture.
-Nature: genes we receive from parents.
-Nurture: all physical and social cognitive linguistic environment.
-The question used to be: is nature or nurture responsible for development?
-Now question is: how do nature and nurture interact to affect development?
-Epigenetics-genome can be influenced by the environment (gene can be
expressed depending on the environment that they are exposed to, without
changing the actual gene we received from parents). Ex. How identical twins
grow up to be different in personality, ideas…
Graph: concordance.
-If 1st individual has schizo, what is the % the second individual will also have
schizo.
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