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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Ingrid Johnsrude
Semester
Winter

Description
Semester 2 Week 13 Communication  Language is a method for communicating information including ideas, thoughts, and emotions  Unusual languages include: music, flower arrangements, bids in cards, the way we hold our bodies  Comprehension: information can be communicated only if both the sender and the receiver understands what’s going on  Semanticity: the extent to which a language can use symbols to transmit meaningful messages  Words vs. Ideas: we don’t need a word for everything – language combines a limited number of words and a few rules to convey many ideas  Generativity: the ability to combine words or symbols of a language using rules of composition and syntax to communicate an almost infinite variety of ideas using a relatively small vocabulary  Displacement: the ability to convey a message that is not tied to the current time and place  American Sign Language meets the criteria of a language  Language can be defined as a socially agreed-upon, rule-governed system of arbitrary symbols that can be combined in different ways to communicate ideas and feelings about both the present time and place and other times and places, real or imagined Linguistics  Linguists study the rules of language  Pycholinguistics: a branch of cognitive psychology devoted to the study of the acquisition, comprehension, and production of a language  Basic sounds  Phonology: the rules that govern the patters of sounds that are used in a language- which sounds are used, and how they’re combined  Phonemes: the basic distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one word from another (ex. R and L confusion)  Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning in a language (combined phonemes)  Free morphemes meaningful on their own, bound morphemes meaningful only when combined with other morphemes to form words  In language many assumptions are made on context, and definition of words  Semantics: the relationship between words and their meanings  Syntax: grammatical rules of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences (ex. Importance of sentence order)  Pragmatics: the social rules of language that allow people to use language appropriately for different purposes and in different situations  Comprehension requires: (1) Recognition of sounds/phonemes, (2) identification of and associated meaning with words given (morphological/semantic knowledge) (3) analysis of the syntax of the message (morphemes/pragmatics)  “slips of the tongue” common due to transforming deep structure Speaking and Hearing  Making sounds  Articulators: mouth structures that make speech sounds (jaw, tongue, lips, and soft palate)  We rely on our experience with language and our knowledge of pragmatics to help us disambiguate speech  Coarticulation: speech sounds for words are not produced in a discrete sequence. Instead, the articulators are effectively shaping multiple sounds at any moment in time, so that different instances of a particular phoneme are acoustically different, depending on the sounds preceding and following them  phonemes overlap and the overlap affects both the sounds of those phonemes and our expectations about the other phonemes around them  Different languages use different phonemes, voices and accents also have an effect on the sound of speech  The brain learns to discard unneeded information (infants losing distinction between sounds at one year of age) Organization Ambiguous Signals  Categorical perception: The tendency of perceivers to disregard physical differences between stimuli and perceive them as the same, such that a continuous change in a physical attribute is perceived not as continuous but as a discrete change at a category boundary  Discriminating between adjust items in a set of stimuli perceived as categorical depends on whether you perceive the adjust stimuli as the same or different things  Iverson and Kuhl : study with small increment changes in sound differences “ra” to “la”  Tone is also a factor in recognizing speech differentiations- Mandarin pitch is important Written Language  Written language: a visual symbol system imposed on top of an auditory symbol system  “sounds out words” (phonetic reading, “reading by sight” , whole-word reading  Morphology can break words into smaller units  Written language breaks up words – syntactic knowledge, is in a consistent direction, and uses punctuation to convey intended meaning  Alphabetic knowledge and basic phonemic awareness form the foundation for beginning to read phonetically Learning Sounds  Automatic for children to absorb knowledge through surroundings  Infant-direct talk: exaggerated expressive verbal and nonverbal communication used with infants (helps differentiate encouragement from discouragement)  When born infants are capable of distinguishing all different phonemes from one another (12 months this is gone)  Cooing and Babbling  Crying: when born infants are limited to mostly crying as their sole means of verbal communication  Cooing: (8-10 weeks) making first speech-like sounds. Drawn-out vowels (“ooh” or aah”), blowing bubbles or smacking lips, all for their own amusement.  Interaction & increased sound production: people begin to interact with them as they coo, babies will begin to produce more and more sounds  Babbling: (7month) begin mixing consonant and vowel sounds (ex. “bababa”)  Better Babblers: speech takes on more sounds, intonations, and rhythms of the language. Learning Meanings  Infants have reference problem: surrounded by dozens of objects that the words could refer to and they have no point of reference and can’t ask for clarification  4.5 months: able to distinguish their own name. 7-8 moths: assimilate and remember new words. 10- 15 moths: produce their first discernible word  Overextend: generalize known words to a wider variety of context than is appropriate for those words  Underextend: limit context for generalized words to a certain specific meaning  Vocabulary spurt: period of strong language growth in children in which they are able to learn and use a large number of words (18 months, 50 words)  Telegraphic speech: speech that sounds much like a telegram with only essential words, has words arranged in an order that makes sense, and contains almost all nouns and verbs strung together in pairs Theories of Acquisition  Nativism (language): proposes that children are born with an innate knowledge of universal grammar (Chomsky)  no learning is involved in early language acquisition  require exposure to words for linguistic growth  Evidence in vast majority of people able to develop high competency in their native language  Genetic evidence: difference in linguistic ability may be result of pair of genetic mutations in FOXP2 gene. This gene is important to our lives, most mutation not survivable. Related to sever language disorder – found in 3 generations of “the KE family”. Difficulty with speech articulation  Critical periods: times in development during which the brain is extremely responsive to learning a specific type of knowledge (language first 5 years)  Poor environment –poor acquisition, good environment – good acquisition  Interactionist: a person who believes that language development results from interaction among multiple biological and social influences  The development of language springs from the growth of the infants capacity for cognition (18 months experience displacement, reflects type of thought)  Growth of vocabulary & increased complexity of language use are direct results of increasing complexity of ability to think about/understand relationships context & concepts  Complexity: grammar (a system of organizing a complex system rather than a disposition) is a property that emerges from the complexity of a growing vocabulary  Social Process: born into highly organized and rich environment, infants are provided with constant opportunities to learn from others  babies go through same developmental stages regardless of languages spoken/signed  children raised bilingually have more native-like accent and speak both languages as well as a monolingual native speaker  It seems as if only humans have a brain that can use language  Washoe: a chimpanzee that learnt ASL (sign language)  Convergent evolution: the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages  Subsongs: unstructured, often rambling vocalization at low intensity heard mainly in young birds (birds communicate through song)  African Grey Parrot Alex, learned 150 words, and could name object by shape, material or colour, and count to six Week 14 Behaviour and Genetics  Behaviour from one of two origins  Nativism: the philosophical view that we are born with knowledge already present  Empiricism: the philosophical view that we obtain all knowledge through our senses  Psychological processes and disorder have genetic underpinnings  Behaviour genetics: the study of genetic influences on behaviour  Sexual reproduction involves combining genetic material from a male and female  DNA: genetic material of all organism that makes up chromosomes (threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells containing genes); resembles a twisted latter, with stands of sugar and phosphate connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine  A human as 23 pairs of chromosomes – 22 = autosomes, 23 is made up of X and Y sex chromosome (males XY, females XX)  Chromatid: one of two identical halves of a replicated chromosome  Protein – molecules that your body makes to run your cellular machinery  Genes: small units of DNA that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes and result in the expression of inheritable traits  Regions of chromosomes that encode (transfer genetic information from DNA to proteins) particular problems  Locus: point on chromosome where a particular gene is located  Homozygous: each parent contributes the same allele for a particular gene  Heterozygous: each parent contributes different alleles for a particular gene  Alleles: alternative forms of the same gene  Dominant: trait that is exhibited when an individual possesses heterozygous at the locus  Recessive: trait that occurs only when it is expressed by homozygous alleles  Appearance and behaviour depend on both genes and the environment Genetic Influences  Genes guide cells to generate proteins that cause our cells to form chemicals in the body that are related to behaviour (neurotransmitter)  Heritability: the amount of variability in a given trait in a given population at a given time due to genetic factors; measured as h and sometimes referred to by this measure  Genotype: an organism’s genetic makeup  Phenotype: the outward expression of an organism’s genotype; an organism’s physical characteristics and behaviour  Every individual’s phenotype is produced by the interaction of its genotype with the environment How Many Genes Does it Take?  Polygenic: a trait that is influenced by more than one pair of genes  Behaviour is rarely affected by single-gene mechanisms (except: fear in dogs, FOXP2)  Epigenetics: the study of heritable changes that occur without a change in the DNA sequence (a mutation)  Changes affect non-reproductive DBA or cause changes in cells that are passed on as they divide asexually  Stress, diet, behaviour, toxins, and other factors activate chemical switches that regulate gene expression  Differentiated cells: less-specialized cells whose profiles/characteristics have, over time, grown increasingly different from and more specialized that other cells of the same type  Describes less-common changes that pass through descendants through sexual reproduction  Cell (instructions for body) → External (External factor change how cell expresses instructions) → Altered cell (continues to pass on new instructions) Inheritance  Correlation, common method of research, can only tell us that two factors are linked, not that one causes the other  Inheritance studies tell us about population effects, not individual effects (findings can generalized to similar populations not individuals)  Polygenic traits such as height or intelligence lie on a continuum of behaviour; their inheritance is not an all-or-nothing effect  It is not easy to separate nature (genetics) and nurture (environment)  Heritability describes the proportion of the observed variance in a behaviour that can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals  h :the statistic used to measure heritability, the amount of variability in a given trait in a given population at a given time due to genetic factors  traits that show high heritability necessarily varies within a population Intelligence  Intelligence: a person’s ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way  Differential approach: an approach in psychology devoted to tests and measures of individual difference in various psychological properties, including people’s ability to solve problems  Factor analysis is a form of mathematical modeling that examines a group of variables and looks for the underlying structure of dimensions that connect them by calculating the extent to which the observed variables can be explained in terms of a smaller number of variables (factors)  “g”, general intelligence, created because all measures of intelligence correlated positively  The idea of differences in mental ability (especially innate) seems distinctly undemocratic – who gets schooling?  Use of intelligence tests by racist should not blind us to the fact “an idea isn’t responsible for the people who believe in it”  Also different cultures consider different traits intelligent Measurement  Binet: believed intelligence is a collection of higher-order mental abilities (interaction with environment important)  Binet-Simon Scale: a test designed to identify mentally challenged children by assessing scholastic skills  Mental age: a description of the child’s score in terms of how it compared to the score of an average child of a particular age  Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Terman divided mental age by chronological age to produce a ratio  Problem because of equation intelligence decreased with age  Deviation IQ: a procedure for computing the intelligence quotient; compares an individual’s score with those received by other individuals of the same chronological age  Wechsler’s test: Verbal and Performance tests – Verbal IQ and Performance IQ  WAIS-IV contains 4 scales with 10 subsets that contribute to full-scale IQ  Standardization: determining typical performance on a test  Norms: data concerning comparison groups that permit and individual’s score to be assessed relative to his or her peers Application  Top workers are more productive – the greater the intelligence the greater the productivity (conscientiousness also is an important trait)  Aptitude measures do not come close to general intelligences in terms of predicting job performance  Intelligence is very highly correlated with job knowledge and work task performance Evaluating Intelligence  Epigenetics: the study of heritable changes that occur without a change in the DNA sequence  Test-retest reliability important and necessary condition for a measure  Cortical network-level attributes appear to underlie these differences for intelligence  Efficient use of neural resources  High synchronization between cortical centers  Adaptation of cortical networks in the face of changing demands  Intelligence consists of a person’s ability to use neural resources efficiently, synchronize his cortical centers, and adapt to change  Individuals with higher cognitive abilities show more efficient neural processing, and thus lower levels of activation in areas of the brain used to perform a particular task  Individuals with higher cortical regions show a greater degree of synchronization between cortical regions than do individuals with lower skill levels. Also, synchronization within an individual increases with learning  Individuals with higher cognitive abilities show greater neural adaptation when faced with changing demands compared to individuals with lower intellectual abilities Tracing Heritability  Aspects of unique (unshared) environments appear to have a greater influence, through many of these factors have not been identified yet  Heritability estimates are convincing from studies of identical and fraternal twins reared together and apart, siblings reared apart, and adoption studies  Gene-environment covariation: when exposure to environmental conditions is correlated with a person’s genes  Inheritance is a much more powerful predictor than environment (family/neighborhood study)  “Flynn Effect”: continuous worldwide rise in intelligences (3-4 IQ points per decade) - possibly do due better nutrition or increase cultural complexity Week 15 Germinal Period  Germinal Period: the first two weeks after the sperm and egg unite  Takes place in fallopian tube  Gamete: a mature male or female cell used for reproduction (sperm, ova)  Halploid cell: a cell that contains only on set of chromosomes (gametes) – 1/2  Zygote: a single new cell formed at conception (merging of male and female gamete)  Diploid: a cell containing both set of chromosomes  Cleavage: division of cells in the early embryo to form blastomeres (zygote cells)  Morula: a solid mass of blastomeres resulting from a number of cleavages of a zygote  Stem cell: undifferentiated cell that can divide and produce any one of a variety of differentiated cells Embryobic Period  In uterus, the cells begin to differentiate  Begins after implantation in uterine wall – lasts 8 weeks  Inner cell mass: the mass of cells inside the morula that eventually will form the embryo  Trophoblast: the cells that form the outer layer of a blastocyst (will surround and transmit nutrients to the inner cell mass)  will develop into extra-embryonic tissues (placenta) and controls the exchange of oxygen and metabolites between the mother and embryo  splits into amniotic sac (maintaining a constant environment), and the placenta, which attaches to the amniotic sac and umbilical cord of embryo  Embryo: the cell development stage preceding the foetus. Separates into three layers  Endoderm: the innermost layer of the three primary germ cell layers of the embryo  Mesoderm: the middle layer of the embryo  Ectoderm: the outermost layers of the embryo  Blastocyst: the stage a fertilized egg reaches 5-6 days after fertilization  The developing embryo process – leaving the ectoderm covering the embryo and sealing up the indentation, and by doing so forms a small tube of ectoderm inside the embryo (neural tube: develops into the brain and spinal cord in neurulation)  Neural tube: the embryo’s precursor to the central nervous system  Neurulation: the formation of the embryonic nervous system which then develop into the brain and central nervous system  Neural migration: the process through which neurons move, grow, and connect as the basic neural tube develops into a more mature brain  During embryonic period, embryo will grow a heart and begin to pump blood, develop most organs, begin to grow arms and legs, and begin to sense and respond in a limited way to sensory stimulation – near end gonads begin sexual differentiation  Cephalocaudal: the pattern of embryonic development in which development occurs most intensely at the head and proceeds downward toward the body  Proximodistal: the pattern of embryonic development proceeding from the center of the organism outward  Apoptosis: the genetically programmed process of cell death as a part of normal development or the normal functioning of cells and organs Foetus th  Foetal period 9 week (final prenatal). 10 weeks breathing-like motions  4 moth, sleep and wake patterns with movement th  5 month vestibular system (balance) develops- foetus responsive to sound (mothers voice changes heartbeat)  6 month foetus can survive premature birth  6.5 month foetus’s heartbeat will change in response to light stimulation through abdomen  6-8 months spontaneous movement of the foetus decreases (needed for the growth of inhibitory neural pathways throughout the body)  Famine (poor nutrition) can cause underweight babies with small heads and serious physical malformations, as well high risk of developing disease  Nutrition aids brain development and prevents birth defects  High levels of maternal stress can cause premature delivery and low birth weight  Teratogens: external compounds that can cause extreme deviations from typical development if introduced to the developing organism (mercury, medication, alcohol)  Alcohol: foetus is directly exposed when it consumes amniotic fluid. Exposure causes Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) – the most common cause of mental retardation. Also causes facial deformities, attentional difficulties, mental retardation, congenital heart disease, and hyperactivity.  Cigarettes: causes abnormal development of the placenta which is responsible for nourishing the foetus, helping it breath, and protecting it from external influences. Lower birth weight, high risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, lower IQ, and behavioural problems  Prescription Drugs: (thalidomide) missing limbs. Anti-anxiety medication, antibiotics, and acne medication dangerous during pregnancy  Diseases: Rubella causes congenital heart disease, deafness, blindness, and mental retardation. Influenza virus correlated with development of schizophrenia.  Studies regarding disruptions of typical development tend to be extremely difficult to control and is not always replicated Typical Childhood Development  Reflex: important for survival & a good indicator of typical neural development (blinking)  Rooting reflex: when infants feel something on one of their cheeks they turn their head toward the touch and open their mouth  Sucking reflex: if something enters an infant’s mouth while it is open, the infant begins to suck  Babinski reflex: automatic response of an infant to having a foot stroked in which they fan and curl their toes  Tonic neck reflex: occurs when infants turn their head to one side, extend the arm on the same side as their gaze, and flex arm and knee on opposite side  Stepping reflex: infants move feet in a walk-like fashion when help upright  Moro reflex: when infants throw out their arms and grasp if they feel themselves dropping unexpectedly  Pre-reaching: birth- 3months infants make awkward and poorly guided arm movements toward which they interesting stimuli (they also automatically close their hands on anything)  3 months grasping reflex is replaced by intentional grasping and ability to guide movements accurately  7 months of age infants make smooth and accurate reaches towards the targets they intend to reach (goal-orientation)  Sticky mittens encourage reaching & allow goal-directed behaviour to develop stronger  Motor Milestones: 5-7.5 months-gain the ability to sit up unsupported. 9months learn to pull themselves up and stand with support. 10 months comfortable using furniture to cruise around. 12-13 months walk unsupported. 16 months puck up toys and walk with them, walk backwards, walk up stairs with help. 2 years able to run, kick, eat with utensils and drink from cups, open doors.  Undertaking physical tasks can alter the brain’s structure and functions as neurons reorganize themselves according to necessary motor development CNS Development  When we are born we posses most of the neurons we ever will have because of neurogenesis  Synapse: junction between the terminal button of one neuron and the membrane of a muscle fibre, a gland, or another neuron  Synaptogenesis: the process through which new synapses are formed between neurons  Synaptic pruning: facilitates a change in neural structure by reducing the overall number of synapses, leaving more efficient synaptic configurations  Takes place throughout life  Synaptic plasticity: Further reductions in the number of synapses at the level of the neuron, which can both grow and shed connections to other neurons in response to its own activity levels  Experience-dependent plasticity: the ability of the nervous system to wire and rewire itself in response to lasting changes in experience  Experience-expectant plasticity: development that will not happen unless a particular experience occurs during its critical period  Hubel and Wiesel: experimented on kittens eyes and critical periods Neural changes  Myelination: the development of the myelin sheath around the axons of neurons – sheath insulates neurons from each other and increases the speed at which neurons transmit information  Myelin: a fatty coating result of glial cells wrapping around the axon of a neuron- they insulate the electrical activity of neurons from each other and vastly increase the speed at which neurons transmit information  At age 20 myelination still undergoing in frontal lobe (dorosolateral prefrontal cortex: area important for controlling impulses, planning actions, foreseeing consequences, and for working memory)  Executive function: functions involved in goal-directed behaviour, planning, and problem solving - the capacity to inhibit impulses, the ability to understand risk, the ability to plan future behaviour, and ability to control attention  Stroop test: sensitive to your ability to ignore irrelevant information (a printed word) and to focus on important information (the colour of the inkg)  Tower of Hanoi: measure problem-solving ability and planning.  Risk-taking behaviour begins in adolescence when social landscapes begin to shift and the body’s dophaminergic system (involved in reward) begins to change Puberty  Puberty: the time at which the human body begins to enter sexual maturity, marking the beginning of adolescence  Primary Sexual Characteristics: Hypothalamus starts secreting hormones that stimulate the gonads to mature further and sex hormones to be secreted → development of sex organs  Secondary Sexual Characteristics: Testes and ovaries produce hormones (males produce more testosterone and females more estrogen)  Females: Estrogen = breasts, hips, uterus, and vagina. testosterone = physical growth and pubic hair  Males: Testosterone: pubic hair, muscle mass, heart and lung growth/ increase in endurance  Menarche: the first menstrual cycle (wealthy at 12-14 years, impoverished 14-17)  12-18 months later ovalization  Early linked with depression, substance abuse and risky sexual behaviour  Semenarche: sign of sexual maturity in boys marked by the production of viable sperm and first ejaculation (age 13)  Late linked with lower performance in school From Two to Three Legs  After early thirties – muscles deteriorate, endurance declines, at fifties sensory experience declines (vision hearing)  Peak fertility for women 20-25  30-50 fertility decrease significantly  Menopause: permanent end of menstruation and woman’s fertility  Changes in hormones “hot flashes”, mood swings, difficulty sleeping, disruption of the sex drive  With age fluid intelligence decrease, while crystallized intelligence stays the same (or decreases)  Dimentia: host of diseases that all cause a decline in mental function, including memory (Alzheimer’s disease)  Parkinson’s disease: increases in prevalence with age – tremors, loss of spontaneous movement, rigidity, and disrupted posture – as well as cognitive effects like dementia or loss of motivation  Risk of stroke, ischemia, haemorrhage increases with age Week 16 Learning theory  Learning theory: Skinner and Pavlov, operant conditioning and classical conditioning  Watson: founder of behaviourist movement  Classical conditioning: buzzer + rat frightened Littler Albert (Watson).Fear generalized to other stimuli.  Skinner: believed that people tend to repeat behaviour that are rewarded (reinforcement) and avoid behaviours with unfavourable outcomes (punishment)  Operant conditioning: (skinner) attention is a powerful reinforce for young children, it is difficult to extinguish behaviour that has be intermittently reinforced than behaviour continuous reinforced  Children’s behaviour is affected by their environment and by interactions with their environment Piaget’s Steps  Piaget: theorized humans develop through a series of four stages that roughly map onto key ages. Based on naturalistic observation of children  Children of similar ages make similar errors in problem-solving tasks  Schema: mental framework of body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing  Assimilation: Process by which new information about the world in incorporated into existing schemata  Accommodation: process by which existing schemata are modified or changed by new experiences  Equilibration: process within Piaget’s theory that reorganizes schemata  Piaget’s theory of cognitive development  Sensorimotor stage: (Birth-2years) marked by an orderly progression of increasingly complex cognitive development. Understanding of environment, reflexes face and are replaced by voluntary behaviour  Object permanence: the understanding that objects do not disappear when they are out of sight (8months)  A-not-B error: task that indicates preservative error as, for example, an infant continues to look for an object where he last found it, despite seeing the object placed elsewhere  Preoperational stage: 4-5year transitional period between first being able to think symbolically and being able to think logically  Inability of the child to perform operations, or reversible mental processes  Symbolic representation is used any time an object stands in for another  Egocentric: self-centeredness: preoperational children can see the world only from their own perspective  Conservation: understanding that specific properties of objects remain the same despite apparent changes in the shape or arrangement of those objects  Concrete operational stage: children come to understand conservation, perspective taking, and other concepts, such as categorization (7-11/12 years)  Children will experience growth in ability to understand feelings and thoughts of others  Comprehend more complicated cause-and-effect relations  Difficulty extending an idea from one context to another – ignore premises that do not support their assumptions  Formal operations stage: individuals first become capable of more formal kinds of abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning  Gains ability to think about abstract concepts as well as to formulate and test hypotheses in a logical and scientific fashion  Not a universal reach, and limited to areas of expertise  Exposing children to objects and letting them manipulate them at an early age may influence and encourage their development  Piaget’s theory does not account for variability in child development  Cognitive capacity of infants is greater than Piaget theorized  Criticism of vagueness of the mechanisms for change (assimilation, accommodation, equilibration) The Social Environment  Socio-cultural theory: theory of cognitive development that places emphasis on environmental factors, including cultural influences (Vygotsky)  Intersubjectivity: an understanding between two individuals of the topic they are discussing  Joint attention: the ability to share attention with another towards the same object of event  Social referencing: the tendency of a person to look to another in an ambiguous situation to obtain clarifying information  Social scaffolding: when a mentor or guide supports a learner by matching his efforts to a child’s developmental level, changing the level of support to fit the child’s current performance. As a child’s competence increases, less guidance is given  Zone of proximal development: (Vygostsky) the increased potential for problem solving and conceptual ability that exists for a child if expert mentoring and guidance are available  Vygotsky viewed language as one of the driving forces behind development (different from piaget)  Egocentric self-talk: Piaget called it egocentrism of the young mind, Vygotsky argued that the child’s non-communicative declaration reflect his or her construction of a mental plan of action Social Development  Erikson: looked at social development over a longer span. Viewed lifespan development as a series defined by crisis resolutions – solved in a positive or negative way  Erikson’s stages  Trust vs. Mistrust : (birth-12months) The infant at this stage relies totally on others to look after his or her well-being. If his needs are met, the infant learns to trust his caregiver, if not, the infant learns mistrust  Autonomy vs. Shame & Self-Doubt: (1-3years) children’s ability to interact with and understand the world increases dramatically. Children will gain either a sense of autonomy during this time, or, if their exploration is too often met with punishment or excessive scrutiny by overbearing parents, a sense of shame and doubt in themselves  Initiative vs. Guilt: (3/4-5/6years) Children achieve control over their actions and begin to set goals for themselves. A positive resolution to the setting of goals is learning a feelings of confidence about their ability to met their own goals, a negative outcome leads to a feeling of guilt and an inability to control one’s future  Industry vs. Inferiority: (5/6-adolescence) A transition to a more structured lifestyle, beginning school and perhaps getting new chores or becoming involved in organized sports. Children will either learn to adapt to this structure and feel a sense of accomplishment in succeeding, or through their inability to do so, gain a feeling of inferiority  Identity vs. Role Confusion: (adolescence-Early Adulthood) Adolescence as a period of important changes that are crucial to the formation of the adult self. People either form opinions about what they believe themselves to be and develop a concrete sense of identity or they fail to do so and remain confused about their role in life  Intimacy vs. Isolation: (early adulthood) People learn to share themselves with others. If they learn this successfully, they achieve feelings of intimacy and are able to form and keep meaningful relationships. Failure to learn this leads to a sense of isolation  Generativity vs. Stagnation: (middle adulthood) Longest stage of typical life. People may develop meaningful relationships and contribute valuable work, leaving them with a sense of having built a meaningful life and contributing to the next generation. Others may isolate themselves, leading to a feeling of boredom and meaningless  Integrity vs. Despair: (late adulthood-death) After positive resolution earlier, a person feels a sense of competition and wholeness, able to understand truths about their life and share wisdom with others. Those how have felt negative resolutions earlier may experience a sense of despair or a lack of meaning in their lives, and their lives draw to a close  Identity crises (Erikson, Marcia)  Achievement : status of adolescents who experience a crisis, consider alternative solutions to it, and are committed to a course of action based on personal values  Moratorium: status of adolescents who experience a crisis but do not resolve it and therefore cannot become committed to a course of action  Foreclosure: status of adolescents who commit to an identity without or before a crisis, usually by accepting an identity given to them by a parent rather than exploring options for themselves  Identity Diffusion: status adolescents achieve when they do not experience a crisis and do not become committed  Erikson’s stage theory is a framework rather than a theory because it is difficult to disprove Ecological  Bronfenbrenner: viewed the developing person as existing within a number of overlapping systems, all of which the person participates in or is influenced by in some way  Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System Model  Microsystem: you and your relationships with those in your immediate surroundings, such as family, teachers, and peers  Mesosystem: made up of connections between different relationships you have within your microsystem  Exosystem: those settings that you might not directly experience but remain influenced by  Macrosystem: the larger social constructs that shape your environment in less direct ways  Chronosystem: encompasses those historical changes that influence development and those systems that surround us (way in which you take a greater role in the course of your development as you age) Social Learning  Bobo doll experience testing whether children learn from watching rewards or punishment given to others  Bandura: emphasized observation and imitation as the primary means by which children learn, particularly about the social world  Social cognitive theory: view of psychologists who emphasize behaviour, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development  Reciprocal determinism: a person’s behaviour is both influenced by and influences of his or her attitude and behaviour and the environment  Perceived self-efficacy: individual’s perception of his or her ability to master a situation and produce favourable outcomes Even New Theories  Core knowledge theory: a modern theory put forward by theorist Carey, Spelke, and Chomsky  Suggests that infants and young children have a much more sophisticated set of cognitive tools than the older theories acknowledge  From birth, the brain has mechanisms that predispose humans to learn specific skills very quickly or to understand certain phenomena in specific ways  Evolution explains how early examples of “core knowledge” were put in place  Theory Theory: proposes that children learn and develop knowledge about the world much the same way that scientists do: by forming coherent and abstract models about the way in which the world functions and they actively experiment to test and revise their models  “little scientists” – not concerned with stages  Infant shows surprise when an unsupported object does not fall  Scientific method: a method of gaining knowledge that focuses on verifiability and objectivity Evaluating Theory itself  Theories help us to organize and predict or makes sense of the world  Different theories capture difference aspects best – different pairs of glasses through which to view human development Week 17 Identifying oneself  Guided movements: as young as 3 months infants begin to make guided movements with the intention of manipulating objects in some way – 4 months will interact differently to images of themselves to images of another person  Rouge test: test used to determine development of a sense of self by using a dot of red colour (rouge) on the nose of the child or animal. The test subject is placed in front of a mirror and observed to see if recognition occurs  After extended exposure chimpanzees recognize themselves  Humans, chimps, orangutans, gorillas, gibbons, dolphins, elephants, some birds Developing Self-Identity  At 2, children can refer to themselves verbally by name or pronoun  3-4 children can describe personal characteristics verbally - physical observable traits, abilities and preferences, their social relationships, and their psychological states. More positive than true  8+  Self-concept: an individual’s perception of self, including knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself. It is used as a bases for how we describe ourselves  Autobiographical memory: memory for specific experiences that make up a person’s life story; influences development of self-concept  Social comparisons: evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others. We compare ourselves to others and consider how we differ  Adolescence  Imaginary audience: adolescent though process in which they believe they are constantly on stage and everyone is watching them, attending to their every move and mistake  Aware that different behaviours are appropriate in different context, confused over what it means for one’s identity to behave in different/contradictory ways  Individualist cultures differentiate themselves from others when describing themselves  Collectivist cultures gave statements centered on group membership when describing themselves Layers of Misdirection  The Man who never was: WWII drifting body with suitcase diversion  Theory of Mind (ToM): expectations concerning how experience affects mental states, especially those of another. It is a reasoning process that attempts to predict how others might think of behaviour based on their motives, needs and goals Do You Know What I Know?  The ability to reason about the mental states of others usually arises in its most basic form in children around the age of four  False-belief problems: set of test used to determine children’s Theory of Mind and false- belief understanding  Container test: asks children to reason what is in the container based on what is outside the container, or what was in the container, and adjust as they learn the truth  Displacement test: like Sally Anne task that explores how children reason through a change in location from two different perspectives  Developmental precursor to ToM include intersubjectivity  Infants are capable of understanding the foals of others  Infant habituation: the simplest form of learning in which a given stimulus is presented repeatedly. The child learns not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly  12 months: infants expand their understanding of goals by considering the situation of the other person when deducing their goals. Hands vs. Hands example  Action for a reason: infants take into account the goals, actions, and situations of other people when trying to make sense of their actions  18 months: the complex system of action understanding has room to grow – if infants see an actor unsuccessfully attempt to perform and action on an object, they will replicated the intended action rather than the actual failed action  Children begin to lie around age 3.  Older children will maintain lie, while younger children gave correct answer Evaluating Theory of Mind  Executive functioning: includes the capacity to control impulses, plan complex actions, foresee consequences, and use working memory – prefrontal cortex  Preservation: the inability to switch strategies as new information is presented: the initial strategy might work, but when a change is called for, the strategy remains the same - is common in people with frontal lobe damage and in young children  To test the relationship between the development of executive functioning and the development of Theory of Mind you can use cross-cultural studies to see if they always appear at the same time or in the same sequence  ToM is facilitated if a child has older siblings & in rich social environments  Autism Spectrum Disorder: group of developmental disorders that affect the brain’s normal development of social and communication skills (lifelong)  ToM develops out of the same cluster of genetic and epigenetic processes  Characterized by difficulty understanding social situations and forming relationships  Perform poorly on false-belief tests  Genetic of environmental factor during prenatal or early development may trigger the development of ASD Theory of Mind in Animals  Chimpanzees tested with hidden food and a dominant chimp. Suggested that chimps do have some ToM, but is limited to very clear situation or to a limited number of objects to keep track of  Corvids (crows and magpies): very social and display impressive cognitive abilities, they make tools, pass the mirror test, and remember locations. Demonstrated suggestive of ToM  Critics claim we are merely guessing the state of animals  Critics claim that far more elaborate methods are required to rule out the possibility that non-human animals are actually responding to contingencies in their environment  ToM developed to predict behaviour of others and also to be able to empathize with other peoples  Empathy allows us to feel a sense of regret when we wrong others, which in turn allows us to develop a moral conscience  Moral conscience: promotes survival – by cooperating instead of cheating, and helping others close to use, even with no benefit to ourselves (altruism), we help to keep the genes of our kin safe to be transmitted Social behaviours  Altruism: a motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self- interests  Prosocial behaviour: positive, constructive, helpful behaviour that is beneficial to others that are usually at cost to oneself  Empathy: the vicarious experience of another’s feelings; putting oneself in another’s shoes  Earliest humans hunter gathers – if band doesn’t survives, genes are lost. Thus cooperate to survive  12months infants form expectations about relationships between actions and friendship in their social environment  14months infants provide spontaneous aid to others themselves  Altruism is not enough for moral conscience: nonhuman species display altruism, but we wouldn’t attribute this to a moral conscience  Empathy and altruism resulted in lower survival for altruists themselves, but increased fitness and survival of genes  Reciprocity: increased tendency by people to help those who have helped them. An organism helps another because it expects help in return  vast majority of children display physical aggression (peaks at 2.5 years)  aggression toward others turns in elementary school to defensive aggression against perceived harm  males engage in more direct and physical aggression  females engage more frequently in indirect aggression (rumors)  altruism and aggression found in all societies and throughout history  Accumulation of aggressive influence – your are aggressive while young you will be when older  Aggression supports survival in some conditions (cheat)  Antisocial tendencies are a predisposed trait in heredity – environment also plays a role Theories of Moral development th  Kohlberg: prominent developmental psychologist of 20 century best known for his theories on the development of moral behaviour  Longitudinal study: study of the development that compares observations of the same individuals at different times of their lives  Kohlberg as moral question – see if responses change over time  Heinz Dilemma: moral dilemma, whether to steal medicine and break the law to save his wife, or let her die  Kohlberg’ Stages  Preconventional Morality  Stage 1: Heteronymous Morality (pre-school) –Base reasoning on self- interest and avoidance of punishment  Stage 2: Instrumental Morality (7-8 years) – Become more interested in fairness of exchanges in evaluations of moral action  Conventional Morality  Stage 3: ‘Good Child; (10-11 years) – begin to see view of others as important and display concern about being seen as ‘good’  Stage 4: ‘Law and Order’ (late adolescence) – concern with the good of society. Laws are obeyed because they prevent a breakdown of society and protect us from immoral behaviour of others  Postconventional Morality (very few people)  Stage 5: Social Contract – Aware that people hold a variety of opinions/values, recognize certain ideals (regardless of majority opinion) and obligation to the law  Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles – Abide by a personally chosen set of ethical principles believed to reflect universal tenets of justice  Stage 7: Cosmic Orientation (Kohlberg’s later work) – Grapple with question of why moral behaviour is important, construct a ‘natural theology’ based on experience, and have mystical or spiritual experiences  Critics argue Kohlberg’s stages are not discrete categories but that the changes in moral reasoning over time simply reflect the growing brain’s capacity to consider more sides to issues  Critics suggest that people do not always reason in the stage at which they might be able to reason  Critics have suggested that males and females have different moral concerns – men with justice and rights, women with caring/responsibility for others/avoidance of harm (he only tested on men)  Successful cultures will teach their young members to identify and follow core cultural values  Children in traditional societies have more prosocial behaviours than do children in the U.S., India, or Japan (traditional societies give children more meaningful roles)  Non-Western cultures don’t advance as far in stages as western children  Some studies have linked individuals’ differences in genes associated with the dopaminergic system (involved in feelings of reward) with their levels of prosocial or antisocial behaviour Week 18 Role Models  Much of what we learn about how to exist in our social word is through observation and imitation (Social genitive theory)  Models: people from whom we learn to behave appropriately  Social brain hypothesis: an idea that was put forth to explain the evolution of intelligence  Humans, chimps, and dolphins brains so large and metabolically demanding to meet the cognitive demands of social living  The way in which caregivers in force rules for children is important  Positive punishment immediate change, but less effective than positive reinforcement, and does not teach long term  Inductive discipline: guiding behaviour introducing appropriate limits and setting up reasonable consequences while also explaining why (most empatheic moral development)  Baumrind found that the majority of caregivers fir into one of 4 styles (based on level of demandingness, responsiveness)  Authoritative: parents are highly demanding of their children and highly responsive to them. They are unlikely to physically discipline their children and will more often explain the reasons behind the rules they have laid out for them  Authoritarian: parents are highly demanding of their children, inflexible about deviations from expected behaviour, and less responsive to their children’s needs. They tend to discipline using threats and punishment and are much more likely to use physical discipline.  Permissive: parents play very few demands on their children by are highly responsive to them. They believe children learn best on their own, without structure imposed on them by adults  Rejecting-Neglectful: parents are disengaged from their children and are neither demands of them nor responsive to them. They do not set limits for their children, do no monitor their activities, and my actively discourage them  Children of permissive parents often have difficulty controlling impulses and acting responsibly. High self-confidence, but do not perform well in school and are more likely to engaged in substance abuse. React more intensely that other children in conflict situations  Children of rejecting-neglectful parents have lower perceptions of themselves and are less competent. They may be antisocial and lack self-regulation and are prone to substance abuse. They are also more likely to internalize their problems, leading to depression and social difficulties, and are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviour  Children of authoritative parents tent to be socially competent, self-confidence, and have the best overall outcomes. They often do well in school, feel good about themselves, and report feelings supported by their parents. They have better self-regulation and are quicker to adapt to new situations  Children of authoritarian parents may be unhappy and lack social competence. They conform to standards and expectations of adults but lack self-confidence. They may be unsure of themselves in social situations and look for guidance of authority figures when faced with moral issues. The use of physical discipline is associated with anxiety and increased aggressive behaviour Teaching and Learning  Parental interaction teach children out to act with others  To qualify as teaching the model (teacher) must engage in behaviour that provides benefit to the learning (but not to himself), he must engage in the behaviour only in the presence of the naive individual, and the observing learner must gain mastery of the skill fast  Teacher models – > Learner observes – > Learner Improves  Rat linking infant rat: differences in amount of maternal licking and in nursing style changes the pups’ hormonal stress responses, fear responses, and adaptability to new environments. More nurture, more calm, less nurture more anxious Observing Attachment  Imprinting: a rapid form of learning, typically occurring in a restricted time window after birth, that allows an animal to recognize another animal, person, or thing as an object to be emulated and followed  Attachment: social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans both time and space (parent is secure base from which to explore from)  Bowlby proposed that the attachment is formed in four stages  Pre-attachment: (birth-6weeks) Infants remain in close contact with the caregiver, reliant on their caregivers for food, protection, and comfort. During this time, infants to not display signs of distress when left in the care of someone who is not one of the primary caregivers  Attachment-in-the-making: (6weeks-8months) Infants begin to treat people differently, showing more preferential treatment to familiar people. They may become wary of or nervous around unfamiliar people, animals, or objects. Infants form expectations for their parent-child relationship  Clear-cut attachment: (8-18months) Infants actively seen comfort from their caregivers. At this point, caregivers truly become a secure base for the infant. Infants here may start to display separation anxiety, showing signs of extreme distress when separated from their caregiver  Reciprocal relationship phase: (18-24months) Children grow more mobile and competent in their actions, beginning to become comfortable spending increasing amounts of time separated from their caregiver. The relationship between child and caregiver at this point becomes more reciprocal, in that in relies on all parties to take an active role in maintaining it (check-in with each other)  Authoritative and permissive more attached, authoritarian, and rejecting-neglectful less Analyzing attachment  Macaque monkeys – infants given a wire mother that feeds, and a soft mother that does nothing (Harlow)  Contact comfort: the comfort that primate babies derive from close physical contact with something soft and warm  When scared the monkeys ran straight to the cloth mother – after calmed down, would inspect the frightening thing  Unethical experiment  Demonstrated the existence of animal emotions, as well as the importance of the sense of touch and contact comfort in developing animals  Ainsworth experimented with attachment with a strange situation  Securely attached: infants react positively to the stranger while their caregiver is present but will become unhappy when the caregiver leaves (authoritative)  Disorganized/disoriented attachment: children show no standard way of reacting to the strange situation (authoritarian) – stays close  Insecure-resistant attachment: children are uncomfortable and stay close to their caregiver from the beginning of the test, appearing nervous throughout (permissive) – stays close  Insecure-avoidance attachment: infants have a less solid relationship with their caregiver and may either ignore or avoid their caregiver (rejecting-neglectful)  The child’s temperament, the household or cultural environment, and other environmental factors all affect how the child behaves Attachment from the Child’s Perspective  Temperament: each infant’s individual pattern of behaviours and emotional reactions  Thomas & Chess defined temperament using scores on different traits:  Activity level – amount of movement made by the infant  Rhythmicity – Predictability of the infant’s biological rhythms (sleeping, eating)  Approach/Withdrawal – How the infant responds to unfamiliar stimuli  Threshold of Responsiveness – Intensity required from a stimulus to elicit a response from the infant  Intensity of Reaction – Level at which the infant will respond to these stimuli  Attention Span – Relative amount of time spent on an activity once it has begun  Distractibility – how much of a new stimulus interrupts or alters the infant’s behaviours  Adaptability – how easily the infant adapts to changes in situation  Quality of Mood- Relative amounts of happy or unhappy behaviours the infant exhibits  Three basic temperament types  The easy baby – playful, exhibits regular biological rhythms, calm and adaptable  The difficult baby – irregular in his biological rhythms, slow to adjust to new circumstances, and can react with intense negativity to novel stimuli  The slow-to-warm-up baby – low activity level and can seem difficult at first, but eventually warms to people and situations after initially reacting to them mildly  Internal working model: a representation based on the child’s experiences with his caregivers and used to make sense of the other relationships the child will participate in throughout life  Secure attachments enjoy a higher quality of relationships from preschool into middle childhood, and they display a higher capacity for emotional vulnerability and longer romantic relationships than those who were anxiously attached. They also enjoy more positive daily emotional experiences and fewer negative emotions Gender Identity and Roles  Infants are able to distinguish between males and females  Between ages 2-3 most children learn to correctly identify their own sex  Gender identity: one’s sense of being male or female; consists primarily of the acceptance of membership in a particular group of people: males or females  Gender Roles: culturally specific expectations as to the types of activities each gender should engage in, and the way people of that gender should think  first placed on young children by their parents (descriptions of child, gender- appropriate toys)  Gender stereotypes: beliefs about differences in personality traits, skills, cognitions, and behaviours of males and females  Children are continually treated in subtly different ways in line with cultural gender stereotypes Battle of the Sexes?  Females tend to outperform males on tests of verbal ability and males tent to perform better on visuospatial tasks (tasks used to visually perceive objects and the spatial relationship among objects, such as patterns in closed or open spaces)  Males and females produce different hormones that can have effects on their behaviour and cognition  Injections of androgens associated with increases in aggression, sexual arousal, and special ability and a corresponding decrease in verbal ability (in female-to-male transsexuals)  Friendships between females tend to be more intimate than those between mal
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