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PSYCH 100 Final Exam Review.docx

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

PSYCH 100 Final Exam ReviewWeek 13LanguageWhat is language 1 It is symbolic 2 It can be used to communicate novel ideas 3 It can be used to communicate about something not happening here and now These three criteria can be referred to as 1 semanticity 2 generativity and 3 displacement and are the three key properties of human languageTypes of Linguistic Knowledge 1 Phonologya phoneme is defined as the shortest segment of speech that if changed changes the meaning of a word eg sip vs zip bit vs pit chop vs shop 2 Morphologyhelp helping helps helped helpful helper helpless 3 SyntaxThe girl kicked the ball Girl kicked ball Kicked the girl ball the 4 SemanticsJoe broke up with Mary Vs Joe dumped Mary Vs Joe and Mary are no longer a couple 5 PragmaticsThe Perception of Phonemes Discriminations amongst phonemes begin when the ears process whatever sensory differences there are amongst sounds Regions of the left auditory cortex system specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speech There is a small delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of the vibration of the vocal cords known as the voiceonset timeThe LEFT hemisphere of the brain is usually dominant for interpreting languageThe neural mechanisms that control speech production are located in the frontal lobes Broca found that damage to the left frontal lobe Brocas area resulted in Brocas aphasiaThe neural mechanisms that control speech comprehension are located in the upper part of the left temporal lobe a region known as Wernickes area Damage to Wernickes area produces Wernickes aphasiaLesion Studies Brain studies of patients with different types of speech production and perception deficits such as 1 Brocas aphasiaPatients have difficulty with speech output lacking function words and grammatical markers syntactical errors They are effortful and telegraphic 2 Wernickes fluent aphasiaPatients with fluid speech but lacking content words they demonstrate comprehension difficulties and semantic errors 3 Classic anomiaThese studies can be used to make inferences about Organization of cognitive functions Brain localization of functions ie associations bt anatomy and functionLimitations of Lesion StudiesPatients often classified on basis of behavior not lesion Lesions can very greatly can be large some areas less prone to damage dont obey functional boundaries How to identify healthy vs damaged brain Functional compensationreorganization Critical damage may be to connections to other areas Individual variability BEFORE lesionFunctional neuroimaging used in lesion studies Measure activity in the living brain Detect varying activity in different parts of the brain when subjects doing different tasks eg which areas of the brain light up when reading Uses blood flow as an index of neural activity thus increased neural activity results in increased metabolism and an increase in blood flow in the brainLesion studies have shown that Brocas area is associated with syntactic and semantic processing and Wernickes area is associated with semantic processingReading Reading is accomplished through saccadic eye movements We use both phonetic reading sound reading sounding it out and wholeword reading sight reading recognizing the word as a whole when we read the method chosen by our brains is whichever is faster for each word Word meanings are understood through experience and semantic primingGeneral Theory about Language Acquisition1 Children learning a language make hypotheses about grammatical rules which they confirm or deny themselves 2 An innate language acquisition device guides their hypothesis formation 3 The language acquisition device provides motivation for the child to learn a language 4 There is a critical period period in childhood in which language is learned best Progression of Language Development Milestones 1 CryingBirth2 Cooing 1 MonthSounds that are not crying3 Babbling6 MonthsReflect articulation and rhythm of speech but no words4 Single Word Stage 1 YearSingle word and Protoword production5 TwoWord Stage1820 months Small vocabulary small meaningOverextension and Underextension in Language Development Overextension the use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate child sees red ball child learns to call his ball ball child starts calling the moon an apple or orange ball Underextension the use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate child sees red plastic ball child learns to call his ball ball child calls only his ball ball not any other balls that he sees Children hear a word spoken that they see hear or touch an object and then pair the word with the object Overextensions and underextensions make sense in this context because a child needs to confirm whether ball means round or red or plastic or whether ball is just the name of the childs particular ballNativism proposed by Noam Chomsky theory of language development that states that children are born with an innate sense of a universal vocabulary Some genetic evidence can be found along with the presence of critical periods in language development Interactionist A person who believes that language development results from interaction among multiple biological and social influences Argues that grammar is a product of the complexity of language and that language is a social process
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