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PSYC 100

Week Eight: Motivation and Emotion Why do we do the things we do? Motivation Motivation: the (internal and external) desires, needs, and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move toward a specific goal; a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual’s behaviour Drive: Reversible internal condition that orients individuals towards specific types of goals  Regulatory Drive: those such as hunger, thirst, thermoregulation, and sleep that help to maintain physiological homeostasis and are needed for immediate survival  Nonregulatory Drive: fulfill some other evolutionary purpose o Safety: sleep and fear motivate us to replenish our bodies and avoid danger o Reproductive: sexual, maternal, jealousy motivate us to reproduce, care for our young, and protect our mates o Social: approval and acceptance motivate us to cooperate o Educative: play and exploration motivate us to practice skills and learn about environment Motivational States  Energizing – direct and animal to act and direct behaviour toward a goal, and help animals sustain their behaviour until they achieve their goal  Reward-seeking state reinforced by the pleasure experienced once the reward is obtained  Electrical stimulation to certain parts of the brain (basal forebrain) in rats was more motivating than food, showing animals can be motivated by rewards that have no obvious value for survival and drive reduction (i.e. nonregulatory drive)  Aesthetic pursuits (music, art, etc.) are associated with high status making you competitive as a mate, as well as play and exploration, therefore these pursuits do not separate us from animals, they are the same motivational mechanisms operating in a more complex brain Central State Theory  Certain hubs or nuclei in the brain involve detection of imbalances (e.g. low energy/glucose and salt), decision making (executing a plan to seek food), and motor output (action of hunting)  E.g. may not be aware body’s salt is low, but suddenly crave salty foods after an endurance event  The hypothalamus serves as a hub, sensing internal states, responding to hormone levels, and orchestrating the release of other hormones – basically acts to restore bodily homeostasis  Drive-Reduction Theory: drive produces unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours (e.g. putting on a sweater when cold)  Explains the drives but not the incentives that lead us to solve a need in a specific way – some motivations (like money or sex) don’t change a homeostatic need Cognitive Aspects of Motivation  Intrinsic Incentives: result from an internal need  Extrinsic Incentives: result from gaining a reward or avoiding an unpleasant consequence  Over-Justification Effect: people who shift from intrinsic to extrinsic rewards for engaging in an activity will stop if the extrinsic reward is removed (even though they used to do it for fun) o Not all rewards do this – if new extrinsic reward is ‘no-strings-attached’ will motivate Emotion Why might we
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