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Psychology Exam Study Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Psychology Exam Study Notes Week 13 Learning Outcomes Describe the differences between language and communication:  language is a type of communication  communication is how we transfer information, including ideas, thoughts and emotions  language can be defined as a socially agreed-upon, rule-government system of arbitrary symbols that can be combined in difference ways to communicate ideas and feelings about both the present time and places, real or imagined Identify the 3 key properties of human language  Semanticity: to refer to the extent to which a form of communication is meaningful o represent something symbolically o the extent to which a language can use symbols to transmit meaningful message  Generativity: combines a limited number of words and a few rules to convey main ideas o a language (in the strictest sense) must have this o with English you can create unnecessary complexity with more words o the ability to combine words or symbols of a language using rules of composition and syntax to communicate an almost infinite variety of ideas using a relatively small volcabulary  displacement: the language cannot be tied to the immediate time and place o you must convey a message that is either in the past, present or future  and in a different place Describe: phonemes, morphemes, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics  Phonemes: the basic distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one word (e.g. rice from lice) o word boundaries help us know when words end  Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning in language o phonemes are combined to form these (some are bound or free)  Syntax: grammatical rules of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses and sentances o the order of words for maximum comprehension o if words of a sentence are out of order, it is impossible to understand it  Semantics: the relationship between words and their meanings o can be crucuial for comprehension o e.g. Prince William put the wedding band on Kate’s finger  Pragmatics: the social rules of language that allow people to use language appropriately for different purposes and in different situations o relates to the knowledge and use of a language Explain how speech is produced, and what this might mean for how speech is represented in the brain (i.e. speech sounds are not sequentially produced, but the system must anticipate and accommodate upcoming sounds in motor programming at the same time as current sounds are being articulated)  to produce meaningful speech, we must convert perceptions, memories and thoughts  the neural mechanisms that control speech production appear to be located in the frontal lobes  articulation: mouth structures that make speech sounds (i.e. jaw, tongue, lips and soft palate)  process by which spoken words are selected to be produced, have their phonetics formulated and then finally are articulated by the motor system (broca’s area) in the vocal apparatus.  Broca’s Aphasia: damage to a region of the motor association cortex in the left frontal lobe distrupts the ability to speak o this normally leads to agrammatism: loss of ability to produce or comprehend speech that employs complex syntactical rules Discuss the categorical perception of phonemes  categorical perception: allows us to perceive sounds as one phoneme or another  discriminating between adjacent items depends on whether you perceive those as the same or different  speech is different from other perceptual task  lake vs. rake  perception is warped, and is sculpted by experience o the Chinese vs. English interpretation of “la” and “ra”  your speech perception “system” highlights the phonemic contrast that are used in language(s) you speak and minimizes contrasts that aren’t meaningful Identify the skills required in learning how to read  linguistic knowledge and analytical skill will assist in speech comprehension and production will come in handy for comprehending and producing written language  there are two types of reading: o phonetic reading: sounding out the words o whole-word reading: reading by sight  knowledge of morphology can help a reader break words down  knowledge of the world is essential for interpreting written language in context  people learn to read in 2 different ways: o 1) learn letters and their sounds o 2) then analyze phonemes that aren’t required for language comprehension Describe the sequence of language development milestones (cooing, babbling, single and two word stage)  When infants are born, they are limited to crying for the first two months of their life as their verbal communication  sometimes, at around 8-10 weeks infants being to coo and make their first speech-like osunds o during this time infants will make sounds with their mouths seemingly for their own amusement  as these stages progress, people will interact with them more and more and they will start to produce more sounds  babbling: starts at about 7 months of age, the infant will start to mix constant and vowel sounds  then eventually they become better babblers, and they start to form words Interpret what under-and over-extension and overgeneralization tell us about how children learn language  underextend: only their spherical object is a “ball,” nothing else  over-extend: children will learn to do this – any woman could become mama  children understand tone of voice better than do vocabulary  changes occurs in infants brain at 1 year that change the way they hear spoken word, limiting their abilities to distinguish phonemes  vocabulary spurt: at around 18 months, they go into a naming frenzy  children learn primarily through listening to what other people are saying Describe theories of language acquisition (nativist vs. interactionist theories)  nativism: theory of language development that proposes that children are born with an innate knowledge of a universal grammar o developed by Noam Chomsky o our brain begins to develop after our veery first exposure to language o critical periods: when the brain is extremely responsive to learning a specific type of knowledge o FOXP2: a gene on chromosome 7 that is related to a severe language disorder  interactionism: people who believe that language development results from interaction among multiple biological and social influences o language acquisition are a product of the infant’s social environment  biological factors also influence language acquisition o complexity: grammar is a property that emerges from the complexity of a growing vocabulary o social processes: language is a social process  the structure of the social environment is based on the use of language Apply Theories of language acquisition to word learning and grammatical development  babies go through the same developmental stages regardless of how many languages are spoken and whether the household is visual or oral  children who are raised bilingually will have a more native accent o bilingual children will have advantages in non-verbal tasks Interpret evidence from language learning in atypical environments with respect to theoretical debates  Genie: who was locked in a closet from the ages of 2-13 o she missed her critical periods in life where she could not learn more language o she was not able to interact with other people who could provide her with the knowledge of language  Younger Nicaraguan deaf children, who learned sign language from the older children o this proves that people have the innate ability to learn language and grammar o this also proves that as the complexity increases, the need for more complex grammar and vocabulary also increases Interpret Outcomes of animal language learning studies with respect to animal’s capacity to develop language-like systems of communication and uniqueness of the human capacity for language  the chimp Washoe was placed in a home with humans who successfully taught her ASL o she was able to learn semantics and displacement but not generativity  songbirds also use their songs as a way to communicate o they have specialized areas in the brain for producing songs and processing the songs of others  an example of convergent evolution o the birds also use subsongs similar to babbling by an infant  the chimps that communicate when danger is coming o the baby who used the wrong word and it created panic among the pack Other Notes  Levels of Language Analysis o 1) recognize the sounds (phonemes) o 2) identify the words in the message and associate their meanings, then use morphological and semantic knowledge o 3) Analyze the syntax of the message- then interpret the utterance in context Week 14 Learning Outcomes Define DNA, Genes, and chromosomes  DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, is genetic material of all organisms that maskes up chromosomes; resembles a twisted ladder, with strands of sugar and phosphates connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine o we have 23 chromosomes  Genes: regions of chromosomes that encode particular proteins o small units of DNA that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes and result in the expression of inheritable traits  Chromosomes: threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells; contain genes Differentiate genotype and phenotype  Genotype: the genetic makeup of a trait o an organism’s genetic makeup  Phenotype: how the trait is expressed o recessive traits show up phenotypically when an organism carrying the recessive trait breeds iwht another one carrying the recessive trait o the outwards expression of an organism’s genotype; an organism’s physical characterists and behaviour Describe dominant and recessive traits including homozygous and heterozygous alleles  Homozygous: when genes at the same locus (the point on a chromosome where a particular gene is located) on the 2 chromosomes are the same  Heterozygous: when genes at the same locus on the 2 chromosomes are different  Alleles: the pair of genes at a given locus o some are dominant while others are resevvie Mother  B b B: Brown Father B BB Bb b: blue b Bb bb  the genes for blue eyes are like blue prints for the production of proteins that control the production of pigment o your genes tell the cells how much pigment to make which then determines the colour Polygenic Inheritance  polygenic: two separate genes, e.g. for dogs for fur o if you had a black/brown lab mix, you could create a yellow lab based on recessive genes Explain how behavioural genetics are studied  Behavioiural genetics are studied mostly through the observance of twins who have lived together and not lived together their whole lives  much evidence for the effect of genes on behaviour comes from studies examining the relationship between genetic similarity, e.g. twins  concordance: matching phenotypes between twins o if it is higher rate then the gene has a genetic component cell • contains instructionsfor the body • external factors (chemical, social etc.) external • changes how cell expresses its instructions Altered Cell • Continues to pass on new instructions • may pass new shape onto next generation Discuss whether it is possible to separate the influences of nature and nurture on development  the idea of nature vs. nurture is not rejected, and has been switched to how trhey interact to affect development  nurture: all of the physical and social environemtn  nature: genes we receive from our parents  it would be possible but only in a case where we can look at twins who have not lived together their whole life, the example of the twins, “Ted” from National Geographic Describe some of the misconceptions about heritability  Heritability: describes the proportion of the observed variance in a behaviour that can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals  Misconceptions: o most behaviours are not caused by a single gene; they are polygenic o an inherited trait can have high or low heritability o Iceland will have less heritability while Toronto will have more o Heritability estimates for a given population or group may not generalize to other populations or groups o it does not look at individuals but rather groups o it only applies to a particular group living in a particular environment at a particular point in time Explain what intelligence is and how it is measured  intelligence: a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their owen behaviour in an adaptive way o the ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles through mental effot  It is measured: o Binet: believed that intelligence is a collection of higher-order mental abilities and believe that the environment was equally important  he used his intelligence test to help kids with special education o Binet-Simon: test was to identify mentally challenged children by assessing scholastic skills Define the concept of “g”  it is general intelligence  Galton who bekleived that intelligence was hereditary was trying to correlate more general descriptions of intelligence to physical factors  because all measures of intelligence correlated positively, Spearman reasoned that they must all refelect a common factor of intelligence o therefore he coined the term, “general intelligence” or “g” o he found that the content of the test items and the nature of the task used to test “g” didin’t seem to matter much in terms of test scores  e.g. people who did will on hard tests of vocabulary also did well on easy mathematics tests, regardless of the format  according to spearman a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; including apprehension of experience, education of relations and education of correlates Compare fluid vs. crystallized intelligence and excplain how they change with age  crystallized intelligence: fact based, and it keeps growing because you keep inquiring information o abilities that depend on knowledge and experience o vocabulary, the ability to see similarities beteen bjects and situations, and general information  fluid intelligence: decreases with age o the capacity for abstract reasoning appears to decline with age o the ability to solve puzzles, to memorize a series of arbitrary items such as unrelated words or letters, to classify figures into categories, and to change problem solving strategies easily and flexibly Define mental age and intelligence quotient  mental age: a description of the child’s score in terms of how it compared to the score of an average child of a particular are  IQ: it divides mental age by chronological age which is a problem as everyones mental age stops even though it is really only intended for children  stands for intelligence quotient o Wechsler: then made it relative to one’s age group o Standardization, reliability, and validty are all important for an IQ test  Steingberg’s analytical section of the triarchtic theory uses the IQ test to test this Discuss the Heritability of intelligence and explain why heritability seems to increase with age  Sir Francis Galton thought that intelligence was herediatary o he believed it was biologically based and that it must be related to other phenomena o Galton observed that there were family differences in ability and concluded that intellectual abilities were heritable o Galton developed the logic of twin studies and adaptive parent studies to assess the heratibility of a human trait  individuals with higher cognitive ability show greater neural adaptation when faced with changing demands compared to individuals with lower intellectual abilities  educational achievement and genetic effects increase with age o until early adulthood, people are subject to the authority and decisions of many other people and insitutions o the environment therefore stands to play a relatively important role in the development of intellectual abilities, when people become independent, they choose their own environments  these choices reflect the heritable component of intelligence, the influence of the chosen environment becomes less distinct from genetic influence Discuss the controversy surrounding ethnic differences in IQ scores  testing intelligence goes against the idea that we are all born equally intelligence testing is a growth industry focuses on outcome and not process does not measure attitude and motivation poor and minority children are often placed... not a culture fair test o peanut butter and jelly, how are they alike? o what does canal mean? importance of secrecy; even seeing older tests can result in a better answer, therefore, a higher score than the person actually deserves Evaluating Intelligence  differences in intelligence do correlate with differences in brain activity  brain imaging has allowed researchers to postulate that intelligence consists of a persons ability to use neural resources efficiently  3 cortical network-level attributes that underlie these differences are: o 1) individuals with higher intelligence show more efficient neural processing, and this lower levels of activation in areas of the brain used to perform a particular task o 2) individuals with higher skill levels show a greater degree of synchronization between cortical regions than do individuals with lower skill level. Synchronization within an individual increases with learning o 3) individuals with higher congnitive ability show greater neural adaptation when faced with changing demands compared to individuals with lower intellectual abilities. Week 15 Learning Outcomes Describe the stages of prenatal development  Germinal Period: When the sperm and ovum fuse, the developing cells have attached to the uterine wall o will last for 8-10 days o both the sperm and ova have a reproductive cell called a gamete  these gametes are haploid: each contains only half of the genetic complement required for life o the merging of male and female gametes is the zygote  this will create a diploid (receiving half from each gamete) o during this period, the zygotic cell divided multiple times  these divisions occur by cleavage (24hrs after conception)  this forms morula: a mass of cells  Embryonic Period: lasts 8 weeks, during this period the trophoblast divides into two parts: o 1) the amniotic sac  where the embryo is developing (maintains a constant environment) o 2) the placenta is on the inside of the amniotic sac (is a filter and protective barrier for the placenta) o also the embryo sperates:  1) endoderm: develops into digestive system, urinary, and lungs  2) mesoderm: muscle, bone, and circulatory system  3) ectoderm: into skin, hair, teeth and central nervous system  Foetal Period: from the 9 week until birth o 10 weeks: breathing-like motions, to help breathing immediately after birth o 4 months: sleep and wake patterns, and movements are detectable o 5 months: vestibular system (for balance) begins to develop, and it is responsive to sound o 6 months: the fetus could survive birth, and it can show experience taste Describe prenatal brain development (neural tube differentiation, cell migration; role of teratogens)  Teratogens: are external compounds that cause extreme deviations from typical development  e.g. alcohol, tobacco, drugs o when the fetus is exposed to it, these can affect the baby o studies that look at foetal production are affected by confounds and the population o anything that has an adverse effect on development, effect ranges from mild to death, many only have a problem if exposure occurs during sensitive period  neural tube differentiation: develops into the brain and spinal cord o a small tube forms in the ectoderm after the 3 layers differentiate o there is the open neural plate, and the two neural plate borders then fold, there is neural groove and it forms a tube o neurolation: the newly formed tube begins to develop into the brain and spinal cord  cell migration/neural migration: neural growth and the moving of cells o it occurs with help from neurogenesis, interaction with glilial cells, and genetic chemical and environmental signals Describe prenatal perceptual/behavioural development (role of experience in hearing/vision (de Casper & Spence in auditory perception); rest/activity cycles)  at 10 weeks, the foetus begins making breathing-like motions not to receive oxygen but to provide the muscles and nerve development needed for the newborn to breathe immediately after born  at the end of 4 months, sleep and wake patterns begin to emerge and movements are detectable  at 5 months, the vestibular system required for balance develops o then the foetus also becomes responsive to sound, and the heartbeat will change in response to the sound of its mother’s heartbeat  at 6 months: the foetus’s heartbeat will change in response to light stimulation through the mother’s abdomen o the foetus will also experience taste and will preferentially choose food that the mother had while she was pregnant or breast-feeding Define reflexes providing, definition of key reflexes  Eye blink reflex: is present from birth until death  Rooting and sucking reflexes: only at birth and then they disappear o if something enters an infant’s mouth while it is open, the infant begins to suck o both reflexes are crucial to early feeding but are soon replaced by voluntary behaviours  Babinski reflex: automatic response of an infant to having a foot strocked in which they can fan and then curl their toes  Tonic neck reflex: occurs when infants turn their head to one side, extend one arm on the same size as their gaze, and flex the arm and knee on the opposite side of the body  Moro reflex: occurs when the infants throw out their arms and grasp if they feel themselves dropping unexpectedly Describe the development of reaching/grasping  from birth until they are about 3 months old, infants will automatically close their hands on anything that presses against their palms o during this period, infants exhibit a behaviour called “pre-reaching” in which they make movement towards interesting stimuli o these movements are ineffective at actually reaching and grasping the objects of interest  at 3 months, the infant’s grasping reflex is replaced by intentional grasping o they can guide their movement more accurately using visual feedback to alter the direction of their movements more appropriately o increased muscles in the neck, shoulders, and arms leading to increased balance and control of the torso  generally at around 7 months, infants begin to make smooth and accurate reaches toward the targets they intended to reach o they can become goal-oriented Describe motor milestones and role of experience in achieving them  motor milestones are important because they indicate typical development o there is a lot of variability amongst these ranges  they are: o 5-7 ½ months: they can start pulling themselves up o 9 months: stand up with support o 10 months: using furniture to move around o 12-13 months: walking without support o 16 months: moving around without problems o 2 years: children run, kick, eat with utensils, and drink from cups  things such as motor skills, that are used more, develop earlier Describe physical changes in adolescence (puberty, hormones, sexual characteristics)  there is a lack of maturity in brain regions governing executive function may provide some explanation for reckless or impulsive behaviour engaged in at times by adolescents  at the age of 20, some areas of the brain still are undergoing myelination particularly in the frontal lobe, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (which is used for planning complex actions, foreseeing consequences, and for working memory) o myelination: the development of the myelin sheath around neurons, the sheath insulates neurons from each other and increases the speed at which neurons transmit information  Executive Function: young children have great difficulty with tasks of executive functioning  adolescents do better and adults perform the best, though they often make mistakes too  Puberty: the time at which people’s bodies begin to enter sexual maturity o it begins when the hypothalamus starts secreting hormones that stimulate the gonads to mature further, maturation and hormone secretion cause rapid development of sex organs; these are the primary sexual characteristics o the testes and ovaries produce hormones that lead to secondary sexual charracteristics  both genders produce both of these hormones but just in various amounts  menarche: after the first growth spurt, this will happen when females have their first menstruation, then 12-18 months after this, ovulation will begin o diet, body fat, health and stress level all factor in to when this happens for the first time o if this happens to early, it can sometimes cause depression, substance abuse and risky sexual behaviour  Semenarche: the time of first ejaculation for males, usually occurs around the age of 13, though the timing of this is also variable o late maturation has been linked to lower performance in school Describe CNS development in childhood and adolescene (pruning, myelinzation and late maturation of executive functioning regions; brain plasticity)  at the age of 20, some areas of the brain still are undergoing myelination particularly in the frontal lobe, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (which is used for planning complex actions, foreseeing consequences, and for working memory) o myelination: the development of the myelin sheath around neurons, the sheath insulates neurons from each other and increases the speed at which neurons transmit information  pruning:  with age, the ability to use fluid intelligence decreases while crystallized intelligence stays the same/increases o older adults are better at vocabulary and analogies because of their richer schema development and experience in solving problems. They may have more efficient neural connections Identify key cognitive changes in adulthood  Developmental experience determines the organizational and functional status of the mature brain  Dementia o Normal aging slight decrements in speed of processing, memory, and other cognitive abilities (cog. decline).  Mild Cognitive Impairment: o isolated impairments, usually in memory.  Dementia: o severe impairments in two or more cognitive domains, as well as functional decline.  executive functioning Week 16 Learning Outcomes Compare and Contrast the major theories and frameworks of human development  John B. Watson and Roaslie Rayner (1920): the behaviourist movement o believed that conditioning is the primary mechanism through which children learn about the world o a baby, “Albert” was presented with a rat, and the experimenter would clang with a loud noise, after a few trials the baby was scared of the rat and overgeneralized with other things that was similar to the rat (dog, rabbit, white mask)  B.F. Skinner: believed in reinforcement (people tend to repeat behaviours that are rewarded) and punishment (avoid behaviours with unfavourable outcomes) o receiving attention is a powerful reinforce for younger children o it is more difficult to extinguish behaviour that has been intermittently reinforced than behaviour that has been consistently reinforced o we reinforce unwanted behaviour in children by giving in to their demands  Erikson: - stages involve conflict resolution o looked at the stages regarding to the resolution to “crises” faced by the developing child regarding how to deal with his or her environment o Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust, the infant relies totally on others to look after them, if the needs are met they trust, if not, they do not trust o Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Self-Doubt, 1-3 years: the child’s ability to inderact and understand the world increases, they will gain autonomy or self- doubt (if they are punished too much) o Stage 3 (3/4-5/6) Initiative vs. Guilt: they have control over their actions and can set goals, positive outcomes will enforce initiative o Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority (5/6-adolescnce): having a more structured lifestyle, children will learns to adapt to the new structure a h
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