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PSYC 100 Exam 1 (mid-term) 2011

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Queen's University
PSYC 100

1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology Psychology as a Science  Fields of Psychology o Psychological psychology  Physiological basis for Behaviour o Comparative psychology  Compare species to explain behaviors in terms of evolutionary adaptation (mating, aggression) o Behaviour analysis  Effect of environmental events on behavior (learning, motivation) o Behaviour genetics  Role of genetics in behavior-genes are blueprint for brain o Cognitive psychology  Complex behaviors and mental processes (attention, learning, memory) o Cognitive neuroscience  Particular brain mechanisms responsible for cognitive processes o Developmental psychology  Physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of children o Social psychology  Effects of people on peoples behavior o Personality psychology  Individual difference in pattern of behavior o Evolutionary psychology  Adaptive advantages that specific behaviors provided during evolution- natural selection o Cross-cultural psychology  Impact of culture on behavior o Clinical psychology  Abnormal behavior and psychological disorders  Origins of psychology o Philosophy  Animism is the belief that all animals and all moving objects posses spirits providing their moving force  Rene Descartes is the father of modern philosophy o World was purely mechanical, and ran its course without divine interference o Behaviour of human body and animals were controlled by natural causes o Reactions did not require participation of the mind –they were automatic (reflexes)  Dualism is that reality can be divided into mind and matter  Pineal body is hypothesized site of interactions between mind and body  Imperialism is all knowledge is obtained through the senses  Born with now knowledge  John Lock o Tabula rasa=blank slate o Simple ideas combine to form complex ones  George Berkley o Knowledge of events requires inferences based on accumulation of past experiences o Must her how to perceive  Materialism is when reality can be known only through the physical world, of which the mind is a part  Mind is composed entire of matter 2  James Mill o Humans and animals both fundamentally the same- both are subject to the physical laws of world o Reject Descartes‟ concepts of immaterial mind o Biology  Luigi Galvani  Muscles could contract by applying an electrical current to them to the nerves attached to them  Johannes Muller  Doctrine of specific nerve energies  Basic message sent along all nerves was the same=electrical impulse  Different channels (nerves) cause brain to distinguish different sensory inputs  Brain is specialized- areas of brain have different functions  Pierre Flourens  Removed parts of animal‟s nervous systems effects depended on the part that had been removed  Experimental ablation= remove portion of brain to study functions of that region  Gustav Frisch and Eduard Hitzig  Electrical stimulation to map functions of brain  Body mapped onto surface of brain  Hermann von Helmholtz  Measured speed of nerve impulse  Measured speed of reaction to a physical stimulus – to much variability  Ernst Weber  Magnitude of sensation- ability to distinguish between stimuli followed orderly laws  Perceptual phenomena could be studies scientifically  Development of psychology o Structuralism is the science of immediate experience  Structure of min is built from elements of consciousness 9ideas, sensations)  Focus on mental processes  Wundt- first person to call himself a psychologist, first psychology textbook  Introspection is looking within to observe  Died out due to lack of reliability in experiments o Functionalism is stressed biological significance (purpose/function) of natural processes and behaviors  Reactions against Wundt‟s structuralism  Focuses on process of conscious activity (perceiving, learning)  Studies relation between environment and response of organism to environment  Charles Darwin  Behaviors best explained by understanding role in adaptation  William James  Function of thinking was to produce useful behaviors o Behaviorism is the only proper matter for study is observable behavior  Mental events are outside realm of psychology  Edward Thorndike  Law of effect is consequences of behavior affect likelihood of behavior happening again  Ivan Pavlov  Salivating dogs- animal makes new response to stimulus  John B. Watson  B. F. Skinner o Humanistic psychology emphasizes human experience, choice and creativity, self-realization, positive growth 3  People innately good  Abraham Maslow  Carl Rogers Chapter 2: Scientific Method  Types of research o Observations  Naturalistic observations  Observations in natural environment  Clinical observation  Observation while undergoing treatment or diagnosis for psychological condition  Reported in cases studies o Correlational studies  Examination of relations between two or more measurements of behavior  Attempt explain observable behaviors in terms of relationships  Does not explain cause and effect o Experiments  Researchers changes value of independent variable and observes whether manipulations affects value of dependent variable  Confirm cause and effect relationship  Steps o Identity problems and formulate hypothetical cause and effect relationship  Hypothesis is a statement designed to be tested by experiment  Tentatively expresses cause and effect relation  Theory is statements designed to explain a set of phenomena  Summarizes a group of hypotheses o Design experiment  Experimental group is exposed to particular value of independent variable that has been manipulated  Control group is a comparison group to naturally occurring value of independent variable  Independent variable is the variable that is manipulated to determine cause and effect  Dependent variable is the variable that is measured  Nominal fallacy is a false belief one has explained causes of phenomenon by naming it  Operational definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure it  Validity is how appropriate an operational definition is for testing the hypothesis  Confounding of variables is accidentally manipulating more that on variable  Cannot determine cause and effect  Counterbalancing varies conditions in experiment to avoid confounding o Perform experiment  Reliability is how likely it is that a measurement is repeatable  Intettater reliability is how much two observers agree in rating of ones behavior  How participants are selected affects results  Participants should be representative of the entire population  Random assignment is when each person has equally likely chance of being assigned to any group of the experiment  Single blind experiment is when the researcher, but not the participant knows value of independent variable  Double-blind experiment is when neither participant nor researcher knows value of independent variable  Expectance effects  Observation can change what you observe 4 o Evaluate hypothesis by examining data from study  Replication is repetition of an experiment to see whether previous results will be obtained  Generalization is the conclusion that results obtained from a same also apply to the population o Communicate results  Ethics o Human participants  Research ethic boards (REB)  Ensure compliance with ethic principles  Informed consent is agreement to participate after being informed of risks and benefits  Confidentiality is privacy of participants and non-disclosure of participation  Debriefing is full disclosure of nature and purpose after completion o Animal participants  Animals cannot give informed consent  Researcher must as question  Results o Descriptive statistics are mathematical procedures for organizing collections of data  Measures of central tendency (mean, median)  Measures of variability (range, standard deviation)  Measurement of relations  Correlation coefficient, scatterplot, positive correlation, negative correlation o Inferential statistics calculate whether or not the results are statistically significant  Statistical significance is how likely it is that an observed relation between two variables actually exist  Statistically significant if there is 5% probability that their finding are due to chance  Descriptive statistics are the measures of central tendency, variability, relations  Inferential statistics is statistical significant Chapter 16: Health Psychology  Health psychology o Understanding psychological influence on how people stay healthy, why people become ill and how they respond when ill  WHO‟s definition of health o Complete state of physical, mental and social well-being o Not just absence of disease of infirmity  Cultural evolution is the adaptive change of culture to recurrent environmental pressure o Driven by psychological force o Advancements in technology, medicine, social customs o Shapes lifestyle o Lifestyle is the way in which a person leads his life  No predominant lifestyle- cultural evolution allows us to choose  Many threats to survival our ancestors didn‟t have o Law of effect is the behaviors that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated and those that produce unfavorable consequences tend not to be repeated  Many unhealthy behaviors have reinforcing consequences in short run and damaging consequences in long run  Can work against us  Lifestyle choices o Nutrition  Diets have changed- more fats, less fibers  Diets high in saturated fats and too low in fiber are linked to coronary heart disease and cancer  HDL= good cholesterol- inversely associated with CHD  LDL= bad cholesterol- contributes to clogging arteries 5  Why?  Evolution o Ancestors who faces starvation needed fat o Preference for high fat foods was adaptive o Cultural evolution made more readily available  Law of effect o Immediate pleasure form eating high-fat foods o Physical fitness  Reduces risk of coronary heart disease  Reduces high blood pressure  Increases lung capacity  Decreases ratio of bad to good cholesterol  Accumulate less body fat  Less vulnerable to negative effects of stress  Lowers fatigue and tension  Increase in self-esteem, mood and well-being  Why?  Evolution- ancestors hunted, gather, had nomadic existence, cultural evolution allows people today to live with little physical exercise o Cigarette smoking  Large cause of premature deaths  Children very susceptible to effects of second-hand smoke  Cancer, heart disease, middle-ear disease, lower repertory tract infection, allergies  Adolescents who smoke are more likely to smoke as adults  Health risk  Increase risk of bronchitis, emphysema, strokes, carbon monoxide deprives heart of oxygen, heart undergoes stress- working harder with fewer nutrients, increases in heart rate, decreases in body temperature  Treatment  Switching to low-nicotine cigarette not effective  Quitting- both immediate and long-term positive effects  Prevention  Treatment programs to quit smoking and prevention programs to resist temptation of smoking  Initially children who participate in prevention programs are less likely to begin smoking  Later in life, no difference between those who participated and those who didn‟t o Alcohol  Alcoholism is addiction to ethanol, psychoactive agent in alcoholic beverages rapidly absorbed through stomach and intestinal tract- distributed through circulatory system  Blood alcohol levels affected by body mass and muscularity  Liver metabolizes alcohol at constant rate  Drinking and using other drugs can be deadly  Heavy drinkers sometimes suffer delirium tremens  Pattern of withdrawal symptoms that includes trembling, irritability, hallucinations, sleeplessness, and confusion  Women who dink during pregnancy risk giving birth to baby with fetal alcohol syndrome  Treatment  Aversion therapy  Counseling o Identify circumstances causing behavior, learn to behave in new ways o STD‟s 6  AIDs  Safe sex practices  Fear of contagion- deadly, appear suddenly, no explanation, believe one is at risk  Prevention  Teach relationship between behavior and contracting STD  Familiarize people with safe sex practices  Break down barriers to using safe sex practices  Provide encouragement in order to motivate behaviors that reduce STD risks  Self-control o Unhealthy lifestyles are preventable o Self-control is behaviors that produces a larger, long term reward when people are faced with the choice between it and smaller, short-term reward o Prior commitment to a course of action that precludes making this decision  Stress o Patterns of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses to real or imagines stimuli, that are perceives as endangering one‟s well being o Stressor is a stimuli that are perceives as endangering one‟s well-being o Product of natural selection  Behavioral adaptation that helped ancestors fight or flee o Some stressors can be positive o Biological basis  Biological response that is experience as an emotion  Body organs change normal activities- prepare body to deal with stressor  Heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, perspiration increases  Controlled by autonomic nervous system and hypothalamus  Can be maladaptive  Produces anxiety  Lifestyle with prolonged and sever stress  Selye‟s General Adaptation Syndrome  Model proposed to describe body‟s adaptation to chronic exposure to sever stressors  1. Alarm reaction- arousal of autonomic nervous system; resistance drops below normal shock  2 resistance- autonomic nervous system returns to normal functioning; resistance  3.exhaustion-loses ability to adapt, resistance plummets  Fight or flight response is the physiological reaction that helps ready us to fight or flee a dangerous situation  Physiological condition returns to normal after fleeing a dangerous situation o Continued state of arousal can lead to CHD and other physical problems  Stress hormones  Epinephrine o Releases stores glucose providing energy o Increases blood flow to muscles and increases blood pressure  Cortisol o A glucocorticoid that influence metabolism of glucose o Breaks down protein, makes fats available for energy o Prolonged secretion has negative effects: increased blood pressure, damage to muscle tissue, diabetes, infertility, stunted growth o Cognitive appraisal  Effects of stressor depend on peoples perception and emotional reactivity  Cognitive appraisal is ones perception of a stressful situation  Stage 1. Evaluate threat 7 o Judge seriousness and decide if threat is real, pass to stage 2  Stage 2. Asses whether we have the resources to cope adequately with threat  Extent to which we believe stressor is serious and we do not have necessary resources, determines our level of stress  People show different levels of stress when faced with same stressor  Hardy individuals o Viewed stressors in life as challenges and met them head-on o Felt they had control over stressors o Stressful lifestyles  Stress and CHD  Fed high-cholesterol dies to monkeys to increase likelihood of CHD  Imposed stressful situations- threatened to capture the monkeys  Those with strongest negative reactions eventually developed highest rates of CHD  Type A pattern is high levels of competitiveness and hostility, impatience, and intense disposition, fast movements rapid speech o Associated with increased risk of CHD  Type B pattern is less competitive and hostile, more patient, easygoing and tolerant o Less likely to suffer from CHD  Conflicting evidence is type A identified through observation, not self-repot questionnaires  Psychoneuroimmunology  Study of interactions between immune systems and behaviors  Stress can impair functions of immune systems  Immune system protects body from invading bacteria, viruses and other foreign substances  Types of Immune Reactions  1. Chemically mediated o Proteins on surface of bacteria (antigens) are identified by immune systems o Release antibodies, that recognize antigens, to destroy them  Antibody: B lymphocytes  2. Cell mediate o Antibodies produce by T lymphocytes kill invaders  Stress can suppress immune system o Greater likelihood of infectious diseases o Aggravate autoimmune diseases  Stress increases secretions of glucocorticoids, which directly suppress activity of immune system  Infectious Diseases  Increased susceptibility from stress  People are unhappy- immunoglobin levels are lower o Immunoglobin is first defense against infectious micro-organisms  Coping with stress o Sources of stress  Life changes that threaten or otherwise complicate life  Death, work, marriage, injury, illness  Do not have to be catastrophic to induce stress- everyday hassles are enough  Making routine choice about what to do  Approach-approach conflict is when the choice involves two desirable outcomes  Approach- avoidance conflict is when one outcome is desirable, the other is now  Avoidance- avoidance conflict is when both outcomes are undesirable 8  Social readjustment rating scale  Assumes that any change in a person‟s life for better of for worse, is a stressor  Response given in terms of life-change units  LCU‟s summed- high number=high stress  Dailey Hassles and Uplifts Scale  Measures daily events that are troublesome or pleasant  Filled out daily for period shows how routine events cause stress o Coping styles  Coping strategy is to plan followed to reduce the perceived level of stress, either in anticipation of direct response  Problem-focused coping is a direct reducing or elimination source of stress  Emotion-focused coping is direct towards changes one‟s own emotional reaction to a stressor  Cognitive reappraisal is one alters ones perception of the threat posed by stressor to reduce stress  More realistic approach to interpreting threat than original appraisals  Feel in control of situation  Relaxation training is learning to relax when confronted with a stressor  Progressive relaxation technique  1. Recognizing bod‟s stress signals  2. Use signals as cue to being relaxing  3. Relax by focusing attention of different groups of muscles o Stress inculcation training  Stress inoculation training teach people to develop coping skills that increase their resistance to the negative effects of stress  Developed by Meichenbaum  Have plan in mind for dealing with stressors before you are confronted by them  1. Conceptualization phase  Goal 1: learn about transactional nature of stress and coping  Goal 2: become better at reappraising stressful situations by learning self-monitoring skills  2. Skills acquisition and rehearsal phase  Goal 3: learn problem-solving skills specific to stressor  Goal 4: rehearsing emotion regulation and self-control skills  Goal 5: learn how to use maladaptive responses as cues to implement new coping strategy  3. Application and follow-though phase  Goal 6: learn to practice imagery rehearsal using progressively more stressful situations  Goal 7: learn to apply new coping skills to other unexpected stressors Chapter17: Mental Disorders  Classification and diagnosis o Abnormal  Psychological disorder are characterized by  1. Abnormal behavior, thoughts and feeling o Abnormal behavior is anything different from the norm  2. Abnormal behavior must be maladaptive o Cause distress/discomfort o Interfere with ability to lead a productive life  Caused by interactions of  Heredity factors  Cognitive factors  Environmental factors 9  Symptoms are person actions, thoughts, feelings that could be an indicator of a mental disorder  Syndrome is constellation of interrelated symptoms manifested by a person  A syndrome is a mental disorder if and only if  Clinically significant detriment  Internal source-come from within  Involuntary manifestation  Predisposing causes  Pre-existing susceptibility  Precipitating causes  Triggering circumstances  Maintaining causes  Perpetual consequences, reinforcements of behavior o Perspectives  Psychodynamic perspective  Based on Freud‟s work  Disorders come from intrapsychic conflict between components of mind  Mind‟s defense mechanisms cannot produce an adequate resolution  Defense mechanism distort reality  Medical perspective  Disorders caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system  Should treat in the same way as physical illnesses  Biological basis and genetics important  Cognitive- behavioral perspective  Disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns  Focus environmental factors and person‟s perception of these factors  Disorder not spontaneous- arise from interactions with environment  Humanistic Perspective  Disorders arise when people think they must earn the positive regard of other o Argue people should experience unconditional positive regard  Become overly sensitive to demands and criticism of others  Sociocultural Perspective  Cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behavior as normal or abnormal  Culture-bound syndromes and disorders that only appear in certain cultures  Biopsychosocial Perspective  Combination of multiple perspectives  Diatheses-stress model are disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his ability to cope o DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)  Classification can be difficult  Reliable, universal set of diagnostic categories  As explicit as possible  5 axes (consider patient with alcohol dependence)  Axis 1- major psychological disorders, disorders that may develop during childhood o Comorbid is tow or more disorders in a person  Axis – personality disorders  Axis 3- physical disorders accompanying psychological disorder  Axis 4- severity of stress experienced, source, duration  Axis 5- overall functioning o Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) 10 o Score of 100- neat absence of impaired functioning o Score of 50- serious problems in functioning o Score of 10- impairment may result in injury  Problems  More consistent with medical perspective  Issues with reliability- cannot diagnose each case in the same way  Issues with validity- labeling affects clinical judgment  Dangers of labeling  Once labeled, likely to be perceived as having all characteristics assumed to accompany label  Behavior perceived selectively and interpreted in terms of disorders  Diagnosing only describes symptoms- does not explain underlying causes  Should we stop labeling o Advantages: recognition of category precedes treatment o Prevalence and diagnosis  Sex difference prevalence  Societal expectations  Men report less symptoms  Men suppress distress  Bias in diagnosis o Men more likely to be diagnosed with anti-social personality disorder  Diagnosis  Clinical judgment is diagnosis/predictions based on expert‟s experiences o Knowledge of symptoms and similar cases  Actuarial judgments are diagnosis/predictions based statistical rules that relate particular indicators (test score, age, sex) to particular outcomes o Higher reliability, even though clinical is preferred by professionals o Disorders diagnosis in childhood  ADHD  Impulsivity, lack of attention, hyperactivity  Symptoms presented before age 7  Impairment must be in two settings  Interfere with age-appropriate functioning  Autism  Abnormal development of social interaction and communication o Don‟t use nonverbal behaviors  Pronounced limitations of activity and interest o Prefer being alone  Symptoms presented before age 3  Anxiety- sense of apprehension or doom, accompanied by physiological reactions o Panic disorder  Panic is extreme fear mixed with hopelessness or helplessness  Episodic attacks of acute anxiety lasting from a few seconds to hours  Women twice as likely than men to suffer  Anticipatory anxiety is fear of having a panic attacks (between attacks)  Genetic, physiological and cognitive components  Heredity, irregular breathing and expectancies o Generalized anxiety disorders  Chronic worry with heightened state of worry or arousal  Physical symptoms, difficulty sleeping, muscle tension, irritability 11  Often comorbid with major depression  Childhood trauma o Phobic disorder  Unrealistic, excessive fear of a specific category of stimuli that interferes with normal activities  Three types  Agoraphobia= fear of being alone in public places  Social phobia= fear of social situations  Specific phobia= fear of specific things  Classical conditioning, genetic causes o OCD  Obsession= involuntary, recurring though  Types: obsessive doubt, obsessive fear of doing something prohibited  Compulsion= irresistible impulse to repeat action over and over with no purpose  Defense against anxiety  Types: counting, checking, cleaning, avoidance  Females slightly mire likely than males  Cognitive and genetic causes o Post-traumatic stress disorder  Caused by traumatic event  Relive traumatic event  Nightmares, flashback  Self-medicate  Abuse alcohol  5% of population, 20% of peacekeepers  Somatoform o Somatization disorder  Complains of wide-ranging physical ailments for which there is no apparent biological basis  Almost exclusively women  Must include 3 of 35 complains, must have led take medication or see doctor  Resembles hypochondriasis= worrying about developing a serious illness  Genetic component= runs in family o Conversion disorders  Actual loss of bodily function due to excessive anxiety, with no physical damage  Vivid description- seems real  Affects men and women equally  Malingering=pretend they are sick to gain advantage  Psychic conflict becomes displaced into physical symptoms, learned behavior  Dissociative Disorders = anxiety is reduced by a sudden disruption in consciousness o Dissociative amnesia  Inability to remember important events or personal information  Related to traumatic events o Dissociative fugue  Amnesia accompanies by adoption of a new identity relocation  Cannot identify self or remember past after traumatic event  More flamboyant version of dissociative amnesia  Can resume normal personality and memory after fugue ends o Dissociative identity disorder  Two or more distinct personalities exist within same person  Either can be dominant at any given time  Formerly multiple personality disorder  Very rare 12  Controversial- possibly form of self-hypnosis to escape painful experience  Personality disorder o Anti-social personality disorder  Failure to conform to standards of decency  Repeated lying and stealing  Failure to sustain lack of guilt  3 types of anti-social behavior before age 15; 4 types before age 18  Often criminals, usually from disturbed families  Could be ANS doesn‟t respond to punishment, perceive world as hostile o Borderline personality disorder  Enduring instability in mood, self-image, and interpersonal relationships  Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagines abandonment  Substance related disorder o Addiction to, or abuse of drugs or alcohol o Abuse drugs because they activate reinforcement system of brain o Withdrawal symptoms make it difficult to break habit o Genetic difference o Environment important  Escape from unpleasant life  More likely to drink if raise with drinkers o Cognitive causes  Perceives positive effects- fun, escape negative thoughts  Schizophrenic disorders o Most common psychotic disorder o Distortions of thought, hallucinations, anxiety, emotional withdrawal, and delusions o Split min is not multiple personality  Misused term- refer to loos of touch with reality o Males have earlier onset o Cannot be diagnosed by physical/lab test o Positive symptoms  Known by their presence  Thought disorder= pattern of disorganized, illogical and irrational though  Delusions= beliefs contrary to fact  Delusions of persecution= people plotting against one  Delusions of grandeur= one is famous, powerful or important  Delusions of self control= one‟s thoughts and actions are being controlled by other people or forces  Hallucinations= perceptions of stimuli that are not actually there  More common are auditory, can be gustatory or olfactory  Causes by excessive activity in neural circuits that include dopamine o Negative symptoms  Known by absence of normal behavior  Flattened emotional response, poverty of speech, lack of initiative, social withdrawal  Caused by brain damage o Disorganized symptoms  Disorganized speech  Over inclusion= jumping from idea to idea  Disorganized behaviors o Types of Schizophrenia  1. Paranoid  Delusions of persecution, grandeur or control 13  Positive symptoms  2. Disorganized  Disturbances of thought  Inappropriate signs of emotion  Jumble speech- word salad  Hallucination, delusions  3. Catatonic  Purposeless movement  Parrot-like speech  Negative symptoms  Unresponsive to surroundings  4. Undifferentiated  Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior  Do not meet criteria for any other type  5. Residual  One episode of one of the other types has occurred, but there is no single, prominent positive symptom currently observable  Negative symptoms observable  May be a transmission from schizophrenia to remission  Biological basis  Substantial genetic component  Congenital influences- difficult birth, prenatal viral infection  Brain chemistry- neurotransmitter excesses o Dopamine theory: drugs that increases dopamine, increases symptoms theory is that schizophrenia is caused by excess dopamine, but this theory is not enough as other neurotransmitters are involved  Cultural difference  Less industrialized countries have better rate of recovery  Mood disorders o Bipolar disorder  Bipolar I= episodes of mania by itself, or in a mix with anxiety and major depression  Bipolar II disorder= major depressive episodes accompanies by less sever mania (hypomanic episodes) o Depression  Persistent, sever feelings of sadness and worthlessness  Change in appetite and sleeping  No pleasure, suicidal behavior o Major depressive disorder  Depression lasting for at least two weeks o Dysthymia  Long-lasting depression-minimum two years  Less sever than MDD  No worry, but rather no hope in anything o Double Depression  Major depressive disorder and dysthymia  Genetic component  Cognitive causes  Depressed people have pessimistic outlooks  Beck‟s cognitive triad: negative thoughts about self, present and future  Attributed negative events to own shortcoming 14 o Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  Depression, lethargy, sleep disturbances, craving for carbs  Generally in winter, with lover levels of daylight Chapter 18: Treatment of Mental Disorder  Early treatment o Trephining is drilling holes in a person‟s skull to permit spirits to leave victim‟s head  Earliest form of treatment o Curses to persuade demons to leave, beatings, starving, near drowning, foul-tasting concoctions o Johann Weir  First to challenge practices intended to combat witchcraft  These disorders reflected diseases that should be treated medically o Philippe Pinel  Believed patients would respond to kind treatment  Removed chains, took out dungeons, allowed to walk hospital grounds o Dorothea Dix  Led campaign for humane treatment of mental patients in United States  Reform mental health facilities  Clinical assessment o Assessment is gatherings information to develop treatment plan, assessing axes of DSM o Assessment interview  Structured or unstructured o Objective questionnaires  Self report on feelings, thought, behaviors o MMPI  Personality test used for clinical assessment  567 true and false question about one‟s self o Projective test provides clues about unconscious mind  Rorschach: patients describes ink blots, therapist interprets  Thematic Apperception Test: patients tells story of picture, therapist interest o Behavioral monitoring  Self-monitoring or by others  Counting instances of behavior o Physical assessment  EGG- electrical activity, brain damage  CAT scan- x rays, anatomical abnormalities  MRI- brain sections  PET- blood flow, oxygen use o Variability among those who receive treatment  Sex: women seek treatment more often than men  Education: college-educated people seek treatment more often  Race: whites seek treatment more often  Income level: wealthier people seek treatment more often  Insight therapies o Assume people are essentially normal but learn maladaptive thought patterns and emotions o Maladaptive thought patterns and emotions revealed in maladaptive behaviors o Behavior is a symptom of deeper underlying psychological problems o Insight will lead to a cure o Emphasize talk between therapist and client to discover reasons for problem o Psychoanalysis- provides client with insights into his unconscious motivations and impulses  Based on Freud‟s theory of personality  Initially, problems difficult to identify  By talking, conflicts come into view 15  Therapist gathers clues from dreams, memory, speech and interprets them o Techniques of psychoanalysis  Free association is when the client speaks freely, without censoring  Dream interpretation finds underlying meaning of dream  Manifest content (actually occurs) vs. latent content (hidden meaning)  Resistance is client becomes defensive and sensors true feelings  Transference is client projects powerful attitudes and emotions onto therapist  Countertransference is therapist projects his emotions onto client o Humanistic therapies  Provides client with greater understanding of his unique potential for personal growth and self- actualization  Assumes people are inherently good and have innate worth  Disorders represent and impediment to personal growth  Help client take control of own life  Client-Centered Therapy  Carl Rogers  Client decides what to talk about without strong direction and judgment from therapist  Problems come from self incongruence is discrepancy between a client‟s real and ideal selves  Reflection is when a therapist make mirrored statements to make thoughts and feeling noticeable  Unconditional positive regard is worth as a human being is not dependent on anything he does, say, feels or thinks  Gestalt Therapy  Fritz Perls  Emphasizes unity of body and mind  Teaches client to “get in touch” with bodily sensations and emotions hidden from awareness  Exclusive emphasis on present  Often confrontational  Empty chair technique is client imagines he is talking to someone sitting in chair beside him  Psychoanalysis – Freud, unconscious motivations impulses  Free association  Dream interpretation  Resistance  Transference/ countertransference  Client-centered is Rogers, unconditional positive regard  Gestalt- Perl‟s, unity of body and mind, only present  Behaviour and cognitive Behaviour therapies o Insight does not always cause behavioral change o Assume people learn adaptive behavior o Based on classical conditioning  CS comes to elicit same response as UCS  Systematic desensitization  Construct hierarchy of anxiety-related stimuli  Trained to relax in presence of increasingly fearful stimuli  In vivo exposure/flooding  Arouse fears at intense levels until response become extinct  Imaginal exposure 16  Graphic description descriptions to diminish fear  Aversion therapy  Establishes fear, pain or disgust to obtain that produces undesirable behavior o Based on operant conditioning  Reinforces adaptive behavior (positive/negative reinforcement)  Token economies  Receive tokens as rewards  Mental institutions  Modeling  Model provides samples of successful behavior to imitate  Assertiveness therapy  Helps clients speak up who cannot defend their rights  Extinction of maladaptive behaviors  Behaviors is eliminated by removing previously available reinforces  Extinction burst is behavior will intensify if reinforce is no longer present  Punishment of maladaptive behaviors  Not as good as positive reinforcement  Tendency to overgeneralize= avoid performing a whole class of responses  Covert sensitization = imagine aversion consequences of inappropriate behavior  Behavior learned under one set of conditions may fail to generalize to other situations  Cognitive behavior therapies  Focuses on changing clients maladaptive thoughts, beliefs and perceptions  Believe that behaviors change because of changes in cognitive processes  Cognitive restricting= replace client‟s maladaptive thoughts with more constructive ways of thinking  Rational- motive therapy o Albert Ellis o Psychological problems are caused by how people think about upsetting events and situations o Problems are result of faulty cognitions o Activating event (a) if followed by highly charged emotional response (c), caused by the person‟s belief system (b)  Change must occur in belief system- therapist will argue with client o Muster bastions, awfulizing  Cognitive therapy for depression o Aaron beck o Focused on faulty logic, rather than beliefs o Cognitive triad: negative view of the self, of the outside world, and of the future o Distort experience to emphasize negatives, attribute negatives to own deficiencies  Group therapies o Two or more clients meet simultaneously with a therapist o Discuss problems within a supportive and understanding environment o Advantages:  Therapist can observe actual interactions  Message more convincing from all members  Learn from mistake of others  Comfort and relief knowing you‟re not alone  Less expensive o Family therapy  People are products of their environments- structure of family is crucial part of environment  Helping someone often involves restoring relationships 17  Maladaptive relationships among family members are inferred from their behaviors  Attempts made to restructure behaviors into more adaptive ones o Community therapy  Education and treatment- seek people with problems, attempt to prevent problems before they begin  Establish educational programs to promote mental health  Community mental health centers- outpatient care  Halfway houses- transition to deinstitutionalization  Prevention programs  Primary prevention= eliminate conditions  Secondary prevention= prompt identifications, immediate intervention  Biological treatment o Target abnormal neural and other physiological functions o Carried out by psychiatric or physicians, rather than psychologist  Have medical degrees o Drug therapy  1. Antipsychotic drugs  Used for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders  Found chlorpromazine dramatically reduces positive symptoms of schizophrenic disorders o Blocks dopamine receptors in brain  Don‟t discriminate between two systems of dopamine- secreting neurons (second controls movement –Parkinson‟s disease) o Tardive dyskinesia= involuntary lib smacking, drooling  New drugs- atypical antipsychotics o Partially relieve negative and positive symptoms o Tardive dyskinesia less likely  2. Antidepressant drugs  Treat symptoms of major depression  Depression may result from deficiency of norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmitters  Tricyclic o Slow reuptake of neurotransmitters o Work after 2-6 weeks o Many negative side effects: dizziness, sweating, weight gain  Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI‟s) o Take 1-3 weeks to function o Prevent enzymes from destroying neurotransmitters in synaptic gap  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) o Inhibit reuptake of serotonin o Fewer negative side effects o Can be taken in larger doses  3. Antimanic  Treat symptoms of bipolar disorder and mania  Lithium carbonate is most effective  Main symptoms decrease when blood level of lithium reaches a sufficiently high level o Manic phase eliminated, depresses phase doesn‟t return  People often miss their “high”- most enjoy initial period of mania  4. Antianxiety drugs  Historically, barbiturate used  Most popular and abused are benzodiazepines 18 o Activate benzodiazepine receptors, produces activity in CABA receptors, produce more neural activity o Can produce physical tolerance and withdrawal when removed o Most effective for GAD o Not as effective for phobias, OCD or panic disorders  5. ADHD  Drug therapy is most widely used treatment for ADHD  Ritalin o Amphetamine, stimulant o Reduces over activity and distractibility o Increases focus and alertness o ECT  Apply a pair od electrodes to a person‟s head and then passing a brief surge of electrical current through them  Produces a seizure  Today, anaesthetized and temporarily paralyzed to eliminate convulsions, but not seizures  Seizure causes people to release more GABA, which decreases brain activity  Last resort for sever depression and extreme man disorders  Immediate symptoms reduction  Causes short term memory loss, and possibly permanent memory loss  Very controversial o Psychosurgery  Unalterable brain surgery  Even more controversial  Prefrontal lobotomies are no longer performed  Cingulotomy= cutting cingulum bundle, which is a small band of nerve fiber that connects the prefrontal cortex to the limbic system  Effective for sever OCD  Performed as a last resort Chapter 4: Brain and behavior  Nervous system o Structure  1. Central nervous system  Brain and spinal cord  2. Peripheral nervous system  Nerves= bundles of fibers that transmit information between CNS and rest of body  Cranial nerve carries sensory information from head and neck regions  Spinal nerve carries sensory information from rest of body  3 major parts of brain  1. Brain stem o Most primitive region o Includes medulla, pons, midbrain  2. Cerebellum o Attached to back of brain stem o Controls and coordinated movements  3. Cerebral hemispheres o Largest part brain o Parts of brain the evolved most recently  Brain and spinal cord protected by meninges  3 layers set of membranes  Dura matter, arachnoid, membrane, pia matter 19  Brain and spinal cord float in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)  Fills space between two meninges  Provides a shock-absorbing cushion  Brain‟s capillaries do not have openings  Blood-brain barrier= prevents some substances from passing from blood into brain  Arteries carry fresh blood towards brain  Veins and sinuses carry used blood away from brain  Surface of cerebral hemisphere is covered by cerebral cortex o Called grey matter o Contains billing of nerve cell (cell bodies) o Perceptions, memories, plans  Nerves in cerebral cortex are connected to other parts of the brain by white matter o Abundant in axons, instead of cell bodies  Cerebral cortex is wrinkled to increase surface area o Bugle gyri o Grooves=sulci, fissures o Cells  Neurons  Nerve cells that brain sensory information to brain, store memories, reach decision, control activity of muscles  Specialized for receiving, processing and transmitting information  Glial cell  Provides support for neurons and supplies them with essential chemicals  Types of neurons  Sensory neurons o Detects sensory information o Afferent neurons  Motor neurons o Muscle control o Efferent neurons  Interneurons o Integrates information between sensory and motor neurons o Majority of neurons  Neurons bring s
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