1. When two scientific theories clash over their ability to explain some phenomena there
are two possible outcomes. One of these outcomes is when one theory is right and the
other is wrong and the wrong theory is discarded. This outcome is known as
2. Imagine the author of a History of Psychology Text Book (know as book X) devotes a
single chapter to “The Great Men of Psychology”. In contrast, the author of your
textbook has sought to place psychology within larger social and historical patterns. One
could argue that your history of psychology text represents an example of externalism
while text book (X) represents a more internal dimension in the history of science.
3. Best example of an operational definition: “Intelligence is a score on an IQ test.”
4. The author of the text argues that, “Science describes the natural world with soul-
consciousness, and subjectivity subtracted. Science describes the natural world as it is
from no perspective, as if there were no people in it at all”. The author’s statement
summarizes the idea of The View From Nowhere.
5. The Historian Thomas Kuhn proposed the concept of a paradigm among scientists.
Paradigms can: provide scientists with assumptions about the nature of reality,
provide a blueprint that will guide experimental procedures & influence & shape
how scientists view the world.
6. If a scientist believes that his or her theory may actually be true, then he or she is a
7. The author of the text (Leahey) notes that recent history of science tends to be more
externalist, considering science within a larger social-historical context and pattern.
8. “History from above” is used by the Old History of psychology.
9. Popper’s demarcation criterion of falsifiability runs into two difficulties. One of which is:
scientific theories actually compete with each other as well as with nature.
10. Whig histories of science are typically internalist, seeing science as: self-contained
disciplines solving well-defined problems by the rational use of the scientific
method and unaffected by social/historical events. 11. Problems for Kuhn’s analysis of science include: little historical evidence for change
in a revolutionary manner and his own retreat from the theme of revolution in his
12. One innovative aspect of T.S. Kuhn’s analysis of science was that it: stressed the
social nature of science.
13. According to the positivists (e.g. August Comte) description, control and prediction are all
primary functions of science. (explanation is not)
14. While the conceptual foundations of psychology came from philosophy, the inspiration
for the creation of an independent science of psychology came from biology.
15. Sir Karl Popper formulated his demarcation criterion as a rule for telling real science
from fake science.
16. According to the semantic approach to theories, scientific theory is not directly about the
real world. It is really about an idealized model of the world.
17. In terms of how science changes, one could argue that Historian Thomas Kuhn’s
analysis uses a naturalistic approach that emphasis the human dimension of science.
In contrast, Sir Karl Popper offered an interesting theory of scientific change because
Popper tackles the question of how science changes from a normative rather than a
historical point of view.
18. When in the development of science an old theory's laws are found to be explainable in
terms of the laws of a more basic theory, then the latter theory has reduced the former.
19. According to Isaac Newton, to explain something scientifically meant: showing how
phenomena could be deduced from a few mathematical laws.
20. A somewhat controversial aspect of Thomas Kuhn’s picture of science is the idea that
science can undergo radical change in short periods of time resulting in
“revolutions” of thought.
21. Positivism and Popper’s philosophy of science share a common flaw: neither is true to
the way science is actually practiced.
22. Like Wittgenstein, the Weltanschauung approach to science views science as being: a
form of life. 23. In terms of two scientific theories clashing with each other to explain phenomena, which
of the following is an example of reduction: Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics.
24. Isaac Newton’s critics argued that he never explained how gravity actually worked.
Newton’s response was “Hypotheses non fingo”, which essentially means: I do not
25. The author of the text points out that there is often tension between reasons and causes
in explaining human action. Furthermore, the author argues that this tension also exists
in the field of history.
1. The Islamic physician-philosophers were the first thinkers to propose that different
parts of the brain support different mental abilities
2. The modern day phrase “If it feels good, do it!” summarizes the ethical doctrine of
3. The democratic life of the Greek polis grew out of the tradition of philosophical
argument that proceeded it.
4. Identifying Aristotle’s concept of mind with the Christian soul presented difficulties,
because unlike the Christian soul, mind was impersonal, containing only universal
5. After Alexander’s death followed a period of turmoil. With the fall of the polis to tyrants
and foreigners, Greeks of the Hellenistic Age turned to the pleasures of private life at
6. The humanistic thesis “Man is the measure of all things” was articulated by the
7. According to Plato, a proposition is True if and only if it: is about one of the forms, is
spatiotemporally universal and is provable.
8. If one wanted to find the initial philosophical and intellectual roots of psychology then
one might look to the Greek motto “know thyself” 9. During what evolutionary psychologists call the Era of Evolutionary Adaptation, it
appears that H. Sapiens most important adaptation was not upright posture or a tool
using grip, but rather folk psychology.
10. The doctrine that one should not invoke gods, spirits, souls, demons or the like to
explain events in the world is called naturalism.
11. In contrast to Plato, but anticipating today’s cognitive psychology, Aristotle defined soul
in terms of the life functions it carries out.
12. According the Bronze Age conception of moral virtue, virtue could only be achieved by
warriors through prowess in battle
13. Which of the following systems of thought provided the most important brid