[BCH 361] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (24 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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Ryerson
BCH 361
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Fructose, galactose, mannose
Starch - long glucose polymers that get digested to glucose monomers -> glycolysis.
Trehalose - trimer of glucose digested to glucose monomers -> glycolysis.
Glucose monomers -> glycolysis
Fructose phosphorylated to F6P (fructose-6-phosphate) -> glycolysis or modified to
GAP -> glycolysis.
Glucose monomers -> glycolysis.
Galactose -> G1P (glycogen) -> G6P -> glycolysis.
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose. Monomers enter glycolysis:
Mannose - converts to F6P -> glycolysis.
Entry of Other Dietary Carbohydrates
In muscle: Fructose gets phosphorylated at C6 by hexokinase = F6P -> glycolysis.
Fructose gets phosphorylated at C1 by fructokinase = F1P.
F1P -> open chain -> fructose-1-phosphate aldolase cleaves chain in half = DHAP +
glyceraldhyde.
Glycerlaldehyde reduced by alcohol deH2ase to yield NAD+ and glycerol -> glycerol-3P
(G3P) by glycerol kinase -> DHAP by TIM.
1.
Glyceraldehyde phosphorylated to GAP by glyceraldehyde kinase.
2.
Fructose in liver
*Glycerol-3P (G3P) used to make phosphplipids
*When forming DHAP and G3P this way, we're bypassing a major regulatory point of glycolysis
that normally takes us to DHAP-- that is PFK.
Fructose
Galactose -> Glucose-6P via galactose-fructose interconversion pathway.
Galactose is epimer of glucose at C4 (points up in galactose).
Galactose phosphorylated to Galactose-1P (G1P) by galactokinase (traps and destablizes).
1.
G1P-uridyl transferase transfers phosphopryl group of UDP-glucose to Galactose-1P -> yields
UDP-Galactose + Glucose-1P.
2.
UDP-Galactose 4-Epimerase flips down C4 OH of UDP-Galactose, yielding and reforming UDP-
Glucose.
3.
NET eqn so far: Galactose + ATP -> Glucose-1P + ADP + Pi (UDP-glucose cancels out from both
sides).
Phosphoglucose mutase moves C1 phosphoryl group of Glucose-1P to C6, yielding Glucose-6P
= G6P --> glycolysis.
4.
Galactose
Mechanism of G1P-Uridyl transferase (Step 2)
Entry of Other Carbohydrates into Glycolysis
Wednesday, December 7, 2016
12:03 PM
BCH 361 Page 1
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Mechanism of G1P-Uridyl transferase (Step 2)
Mechanism of UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase (Step 3)
Mechanism of phosphoglucose mutase (Step 4)
BCH 361 Page 2
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