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Midterm

FSN 503 Midterm: Midterm #1 Notes - FSN503


Department
Fashion
Course Code
FSN 503
Professor
Catherine Sutton
Study Guide
Midterm

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WORD BANK
Aesthetic - Philosophical notions about the perception of beauty and ugliness
Appropriation: Taking a unique “visual language” or style and subverting it or using it for the purpose of
disseminating your own message
Audience -
Authorship -
Binary oppositions designate the first category as unmarked (the norm) and the second as marked (the
other).
Bricolage - A tactic of appropriation meaning literally to “make do” or piecing together one’s culture
from whatever is at hand.
- When hegemonic forces re-appropriate tactics of marginalized cultures into the
mainstream, it is a form of
counter-bricolage
.
- When you cobble together things from all over
Cartesian Dualism and space - dualism of substances (5 parts)
- Individual things that can exit independently (this excludes shadows, water and wood)
- Most substances are complex; they are composed of other substances
- Substances enter into relationships with other substances (being part, causality)
- Substances have properties, but they are more than bundles of properties
- Substances are contrasted with non-substantial concrete individual
events
and with abstract
entities like
sets
and
numbers
.
Colonialist Appropriation -the adoption or use of elements of one culture by members of another
culture, usually the original meaning is lost due to lack of understanding.
Colonialism -leaving Europe and going to settle
Docile Body - Citizens who participate in the ideologies of the society through the desire to conform
Dominant meanings: Meanings that tend to predominate within a given culture
Decoding - An image is
decoded
by viewers when it is consumed by them (works in tandem with
encoding - refers to the 3 different readings of images)
Discourse - Michel Foucault’s term to describe a group of statements which provides a means for
talking about a particular topic at a particular moment in history
- Bodies of knowledge that make up social spheres such as law, economics, psychology,
anthropology, etc.
Episteme - An accepted dominant mode of acquiring and organizing knowledge in a given period
- Each period in history has a different episteme. Egyptians based the size of figures in
artistic depictions based on the relative importance of the subjects (Foucault)
Encoding - an image is
encoded
with meaning in its creation or production and when it is placed in a
given setting or context (works in tandem with decoding - refers to the 3 different readings of
images)
Enlightenment -European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason
and individualism rather than tradition.
Flaneur - A dandy, a passionate spectator, walking around the streets to be seen
- He’s a consumer of goods: he's a metaphor for the new modern subject
Gaze - to stare at, to look fixedly at, to oggle, study, scrutinize, gawk
- In theories of spectatorship, the gaze of the viewer is embedded in a social and
contextual field of looks, objects, and other sensory information
- Not always done in a social context
- Gazing is not the individual act of looking
- Voyeurism - looking at each other and seeing who is powerful too
Habitus: a set of disposition and preferences we share as social subjects that are related to our
class position, education, and social standing
Hawthorne effect - a type of reactivity in which individuals modify or improve an aspect of their
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behaviour in response to the awareness of being observed
Hegemony - Dominant ideologies are often offered as common sense or dominant ideologies are in
tension with other forces and hence constantly in flux
High Culture -sophisticated, expensive, value, singular, hand made
Icon - An image that refers to something outside of its individual components; something or
someone that has great symbolic meaning for many people
- Tiananmen square tank photo
- Historical paintings of mother and child can be read as a specific indicator of cultural
values of motherhood and the role of women in Western culture in the 16c
Ideology - The means by which certain values are made to seem like natural, inevitable aspects of
everyday life. They are social assumptions about the way things are and should be They appear
to be a given rather than a part of a system of belief that a culture produces in order to
function in a particular way
- French Marxist Louis Althusser argued that “ideology represents the imaginary
relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence.”
- Can be all kinds of shared group beliefs
Interpellation: you are recognizing yourself as among a class or group of people for whom the image’s
message is intended
- The idea that when you view something you view it as a part of a social class
Kitsch - art, objects, or design considered to be in poor taste because of excessive garishness or
sentimentality, but sometimes appreciated in an ironic or knowing way
Low culture -subject like teddy bears because it’s for children, mass produced
Mimesis: act of resembling what is seen
- The idea was that you could have a representation as an exact mirror; the image
actually became the ideal of the thing itself (Leng Jun’s perfect portraits)
- This idea was most relevant during the Renaissance, when, with the development of
perspective, it was viewed as the artist’s ultimate goal to depict the subject of the
painting as if it were really being seen, i.e. realism.
- Some show that it isn’t just a copy but also a representation of a scene and symbolic
(ex. Peter Claesz, Still Life with Turkey, 1627)
Modernity - look at the 19th century. Quality or condition of being modern. Modern way of thinking.
- Hallmarks of modernity include: rise of urban centres, industrialization, new technology,
consumerism, shopping, mass production, capitalism
- All caused enormous change >living in slums, poor working conditions and rats
- Changed how they spectate
Modernism -modern character or quality of thought, expression, or technique.
Museology -the science or practice of organising, arranging and managing museums
Myth - Barthe’s definition, the hidden set of rules and convention through which meanings, which are
specific to certain groups, are made to seem universal and given for a whole society
- Allows connotative meaning to appear as denotative
Orientalism -paint these women as if looking at them through a keyhole >postromanticism about how
strange and beautiful they are and see them as others/not like us/ exotic
Perspectival Anamorphosis -
Perspective - linear perspective requires a vanishing point and it introduced science and mathematics
to art when people wanted to create more realistic looking images
Physiognomy - studying the shapes of ears to determine who’s likely a criminal
Phenomenology - all knowledge and truth derives from subjective human experience rather than the
things themselves. It’s a criticism of the rational age of scientific inquiry.
Panopticon - all-seeing prison: everyone would see that they were being watched, so they acted in a
disciplinary fashion (more detail in theories)
Positivism - the view that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such
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knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method
- Kind of the birth of the scientific method; ridding the world of biases and influences in
perceptions of it, how does the world work?
- Faith in science
- facts can be established through experimentation and are free of influence of language
and representational systems
Postcolonialism -time after colonialism at colonized land and the continuing and lasting effects
colonialism even though settlers are gone (I think)
Producer function - According to Foucault, the author is linked to the idea that ”someone” must
stand behind any given image/text and be responsible for its production
Propaganda can refer to any attempt to use words and images to promote particular ideas and
persuade people to believe certain concepts
Punctum - The affective element of those certain photographs that pierce one’s heart with feeling
- Roland Barthes
Rationalism -
Realism - A representation that is understood at a given historical moment to accurately convey and
interpret accurate or universal meanings about people, objects, and events in the world
- Different forms and techniques of realism have been used in different periods of time, no
universal standard of realism
- Ex. Jean-Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857
Reception -
Representation -refer to below
Semiotics -study of signs, symbols and how we interpret them
Socialist Realism - A style mandated by Stalin in the 1930’s as a reaction to the more abstract Soviet
Constructivist Realist Manifesto (More avant garde style, with geometric abstractions and no
attempts to hide a material’s presence or the production process). He enacted this measure to
crush constructivism and enforce art styles that could be used to promote nationalism among
people in the countryside unfamiliar with the more abstract art style.
- Oscar Rabine and Evgeny Rukhin made a public display of abstract art anyways, and
their exhibition was torn down
Spectatorship - more than just looking, it is practiced in a “multimodal and relational way of looking”
- The interplay of human senses
- The context of the image
- The relationship to other viewers
Studium - Describes the truth function of the photograph
- Roland Barthes
- The studium of photographs is less now than ever given the ubiquity of photo editing
software
Taste - Something that can be learned through contact with cultural institutions that instruct us in what
is in good taste and what is not
- When taste is naturalize, it embodies the ideologies of its context and time
Viewer -
THEORIES
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