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GEO 106 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Depth Perception, Sex Segregation, Rede Ferroviária Nacional


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEO 106
Professor
Abednego Aryee
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 1 Spatial Concepts and Spatial Dynamics
Spatial Concepts and Spatial Dynamics
The Nature of Geography
Cultural Relativity and Cognitive Filtering
o Understanding of what constitutes as truth. You can have one issue but with many different
perspectives.
The Research Praxis
o Our conception of reality is contingent on our cultural, background education, etc.
Space, Location, Place, Site, Situation
Attributes of Space: Distance, Direction, Area
The Friction of Distance and the Tyranny of Space
Time, Space, and Time-Space
Front Country and Back Country
Scale and Chaos
Proxemics: The study of closeness. Social space and what goes on in our social space
The Nature of Geography
- Pattison’s Four Traditions (1964):
o 1. Area Studies Regional Geography: The study of a region’s characteristics and attributes
Biophysical conditions of an area or the cultural traditions of that region
o 2. Human-Land Environmental Geography: How humans change and are changed by their
environment.
We are interested in knowing how human activities affect the environment and on the other
hand, how the environment influence human activities.
In a quest for development or improvement of quality of life/standard of living, we use
environmental resources. This includes Flow and Stock resources. How we extract these
resources have consequences to the environment.
Flow Soil, Water, Wood
Stock Fossil Fuels, Coal, Oil, Natural gas
There is a Dual reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment. Give and take
relationship. Cause pollution.
o 3. Spatial Location Geography: The analysis of general patterns in location, space, place, distance,
direction and orientation
Where phenomenon and features are found in the location. Concerned with geometry,
arrangement, and movement (flow of goods and services, migrant labours, raw materials, ideas,
etc.)
Want to understand the patterns and features. Some features have the potential to experience
linear, scattered, and nucleated distributions.
Nucleated: Downtown
o 4. Earth Studies Physical Geography: The study of the lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and
hydrosphere.
Various spheres of the earth and the processes that go on in the lithosphere.
Lithosphere: Zone of rock, land displacement, deposition of features
Biosphere: Zone of plants and animal life, includes organisms of the land and ocean.
They are not separate entities, as they all share a symbiotic way
Atmosphere: Zone of gases, Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Carbon dioxide (0.003%),
methane, mercury, sulfur dioxide, water vapour

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Hydrosphere: Zone of water bodies, includes water in rivers, lakes, marshes, aquifers
Cryosphere: Zone of ice and snow, often found in Antarctica, Greenland and a few
mountain tops.
Cultural Relativity and Cognitive Filtering
- Truth: Undisputable fact, undeniable fact, independent of everyone else’s opinion
- Tribes
o Yanomami Tribe Hunters and gatherers
o Sam and Koi Tribe Southern Africa
o Hill Tribe Papua New Guinea Skeleton Dance
- The Story of Rerebawa
o Anthropologist Picked up a native and wanted him to go into the car so her could take him to Karakas,
but Native did not know how to enter the car
Karakas Rerebawa found giant stones that have been arranged in impressive structures (City
buildings)
- Malinowski and cultural relativity
o People make their own judgement based on frame of reference. What they perceive to be true or real.
- Making oatmeal in the jungle.
- Rice is nice but bread instead.
o There are more serious examples of relative frames of reference gone amuck due to our egocentrism
and ethnocentrism in western development aid. For example, because we eat bread, we think everyone
eats bread, so we give aid in the form of a bread-making plant to an impoverished region with high
under-employment. However, the main local product is rice, so wheat must be imported; the local
people eat rice, so no-one buys the bread; and the high-tech plant hires only a few people, so people
still are unemployed and still cannot afford to buy food. This also is an example of insisting upon high
tech, high cost, low labour forms of agricultural practices (e.g. western agricultural practices) in poor
rural areas with large supplies of agricultural labour (which then become jobless surplus labour).
Similarly, in western industrialized countries we import water-wasting sprinkler irrigation systems from
water-rich regions to dryland, low water areas.
- Cognitive Filtering…
o Cognition is the mental mechanism through which we process information and includes perception,
memory, recall, language, decision making, action, etc.
Seeing is believing What you want to do Perceptions of Reality

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- Cognitive Filters
o Personal: We all have our own definition of truth
o Geodemographic: Gender differences, age within life cycle. Men and women will perceive danger
differently from one another. A child will perceive a city differently than a young adult.
o Ability
Men: Child nurturing capacity, Sports
Women: Child bearing capacity, Sports
o Sociocultural: How wise you use money. If you are rich and poor, you will use your money differently.
o Culture: Shared way of life that includes belief systems, values attitudes, behaviour, language, religion,
folklore, festivals, etc.
If you’re from India, you’ll perceive Canada’s way of life differently.
The Research Praxis
- Nomothetic means the tendency to generalize and is an approach to knowledge typical of science where
objective analysis of phenomena is sought.
- Idiographic means the tendency to specify details and is used predominantly in the humanities to describe
phenomena.
- Together they form an approach to the pursuit of knowledge that first describes phenomena then attempts to
explain them through cause and effect
- Where?
o Our choice of food is different from Canada is different from India. In Canada, we may not enjoy the idea
of eating frog, in France, frogs are a delicacy.
o How Americans kill animals, can be considered barbaric in India
- When?
o Overtime things may change: Phenomena that is an issue today could change in just a short time.
E.g. Marijuana laws
- Who?
o Is the development meant for the poor or rich? Wealthy They are producing a lot of waste in
comparison to the poor.
E.g. Toronto Waste Kale region landfill was full and was later sent to Michigan. Michigan later
refused, the landfill now goes to London
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