Status of global tourism in 2008
- Over 200 million jobs were dependent on the tourism economy
- Tourism is used to promote growth & development in developed world
- There were about 1.5 billion domestic tourist trips.
- Many rural areas depends on tourism
- Tourism is a very major source of job creation – mostly in the service sector – hotel, accounting, banking,
- The tourism economy accounted for about 6 trillion
- The tourism economy directly & indirectly accounted for 10% of global GDP. In some countries, as much
as 40% of GDP.
- Airline, hotel, restaurants, and many depend on tourism.
- Tourism is a very fragile & volatile industry. It can very easily transform.
- Tourism might involve political instability. Taiwan?
Distinction between Recreation Tourism & Leisure
- There is no universally accepted definition of tourism, leisure & recreation
- Tourism, recreation & leisure are generally seen as a set of interrelated & overlapping concepts
Tourism is an integral of different activity.
- Some attraction are designed to serve for one purpose & a symbol of one location – depending on the
entrepreneur designing it, they will try to make it appealing in tourism – the economic aspects of tourism
is based on profit & loss. The community aspect of tourism. Community often view tourism as a way to
showcase their tradition – language, festival, dances, or rituals. They give a sense of pride to showcase their
traditions. The psychosocial aspect of tourism. Tourism is rooted in the psyche of an individual especially
those who live in modern society. You want to visit some place to share the common identity with some
people who originate from those areas. When you go to where your grandparents are raised, it is the same
idea. It has to do with self-esteem and self-fulfilment of life. Classic example is Oprah Winfrey. She traced
where she came from. The environmental aspect of tourism – deal with different vegetation or animals in
different areas or climate that attracts people.
- Travelling not exceeding 12 months = tourism
- There are two components of tourism definition: tangible & intangible elements
o Tangible elements: anything you can see or touch such as museum, casino, food, beverages,
hotel, motel, or trailer are the physical aspect of tourism
o Intangible elements: something described as the experience or the judgement as well as the
attitude. So if you feel satisfied and a sense of happiness or excitement, the memory you take
away is the intangible elements and it cannot be measured in monetary terms.
- Shouldn’t see tourism mainly based on the different attraction. It can be good or it can be bad.
- The intangible elements depends on who the tourist is and their expectations. What can be described as a
bad experience by one might not necessarily be bad for another. The experience is subjective, judgemental,
and socio constructed.
- Leisure is a term used to describe an activity or a state of mind in which choice is exercised. Can also be
described as residual time. There are two components of leisure. The objective view which view leisure as
any activity opposite of work on residual time in which choices are exercised in a willing. The second
component of leisure is the subjective view - leisure is activity that takes on meaning only within context
of individual perception and belief system. What constitutes leisure to one person might not be leisure to
another person. Example: reading a book, skydiving
- Leisure – is a period of time, activity or state of mind in which choice is the dominant feature.
o Objective view
o Subjective view
- Stebbin (2000) made a distinction between Serious leisure (steady pursuit of a hobby – they aim at a
sense of self accomplish, image enhancement, or self-fulfilment) & Casual leisure (they just want to be
passive participants of an activity. There is no gain or no objective in their leisure activity.)
- In essence, tourism & recreation are generally regarded as subset of the wider concept of leisure - Tomb Tutankhamun – how did the Pharoh die? Some people try to discover the death as a serious leisure.
- Recreations are a system. Involves not just logistics or resources – the equipment. You need other factors
too such as physical, psychological, . There are 3 basic parts of the system
- They are linked together by Demand & by the responses to demand
- Looking at the definition of the three, leisure is the more universal. They all overlap. However, leisure can
define tourism and recreation. Example of a leisure travel: Join a group of cyclist to do cycling for more
than a day.
Concepts: Scale & Paradigms
- Scale – the level at which the events or activities are carried out. We can analysis the service proficiency. It
can begin in local level, neighbour, city, region, province, national, then global. Some attractions are purely
local – CN tower. When you are analyzing an attraction, you have to define whether it is local, national,
- Environmental Determinism – theories of Ratzel & Semple – environment dictates or control what
people do in terms of the type of recreation or the place where it is done. Semple – men is a product of
environment. The basis of it is that usually we think pattern of our activity based on the opportunity. People
do logging in the presence of forest or fishing in the presence of ocean. However, does environment decide
what people can do? Not purely, you can build a waterpark where there is no water. Environments
influences what people do. At the same time, human have the capacity in terms of technology or resources
to transform environment to their needs.
- Possibilism – French geographers. Eg. Vidal de la Blache – environment offers opportunity and constraints
– Genre de vie – different opportunities that people take advantage of to reach their objectives – example of
possibilism – indoor swimming pool
- Regions – regions are said to be an area characterised by unique feature in culture or nature. Every place is
unique. It may be defined by unique physical characteristics. Every place has its own meaning based on
their belief or value system of the area. Places are not separate entity. They are constantly interacting by
ways of energy or material flows. They are not isolated locations. They are interdependent. Example is that
New York is interdependent with other areas by internet services or satellite. People come to New York
from other regions – more interaction. There is unique feature in a certain area and that is why you travel.
How do you obtain information before you travel. There are three type or sources of information/marker.
1. Generating marker – any item of information about the destination is something described as a marker.
Example: media, friends, travel agent, you obtain them before your travel at your country of origin.
2. Transit marker – information obtained on a person’s way or enroute to their destination. You find an
announcement or at an information center.
3. Contiguous marker – information obtained at the destinations. You read information from tablets or
descriptions from a particular pamphlet or tour guide.
- Depending on the tourist, they might have different sources of information.
Spatio-temporal analysis of Leisure & tourism attractions: physical & man-made
- Some events can vary in terms of location. For instance, Olympics is at different country at different time
of the year. The different cultural aspects can make an event more attractive.
- The next Olympic will be London England and the last one was in China.
- Spatio dimension has to do with the location aspect. Different country.
- Temporal dimension has to do with the time aspect. Olympics is organized every 4 years.
- Attraction can be classified using different criteria.
- Natural attractions include biophysical characteristics of an area.
- Must look at the management aspect
o Investment & operating costs are high
o There is finite amount of natural resources for leisure
o Market failure o Merit good
o Public good or collective good
- Every region or location