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GCM 210 Final: GCM 210 - Final Exam Notes

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Department
Graphic Communications
Course
GCM 210
Professor
Natalia Lumby
Semester
Winter

Description
L ECTURE #1:I NTRO TO C ONSUMER PACKAGING WHAT IS CONSUMER PACKAGING? • packages can be defined by the product category, the substrate, or the end-user • Consumer packaging is targeted directly at the household consumer, and usually covers all products that are considered “fast moving” o Milk cartons vs. IKEA cardboard • We will focus on packages that market products PACKAGING AND THE LAW • The Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act A. The common or generic name of the product; B. A declaration of net quantity, generally in numerical count or metric units of measurement (although supplementary non-metric measurements may also be used); and C. The identity and address of the person by or for whom the product was manufactured, sold, or imported (i.e., the dealer identification). • Accessibility is increasingly important o Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act; making Ontario Accessible by 2025 o Making packaging accessible through the use of braille or printed electronics ▪ The talking package TYPES OF PACKAGES • Primary packaging: o Holds the product directly o Usually smallest unit of packaging o Goes home with the consumer • Secondary packaging: o Holds groups of primary packages together o Some people also call this primary (when you are buying a case that goes home) • Tertiary packaging: o Bulk handling and warehouse storage 1 | P a g e FUNCTIONS OF A PACKAGE 1. Contain • Keep the product together • Also applies to groups of products (secondary and tertiary packages) • We want to prevent leaks/spills • Lab testing is used to ensure the package contains • Specialized cameras manage risk areas during production 2. Protect • Product must be safe inside the package • Any time the product is handled the package should protect it • Fragile products have more demands o Shock o Puncture o Vibration o Environment (RH, temp, light, organisms) o Static compression o Tampering o Dynamic compression • How do we decide what will protect the product? ➢ What is the product? ➢ What is the environment? ➢ What are the properties (including cost) of available protective packaging materials? 3. Preserve • Mostly applies to food/bev/pharma/cosmetics • You want to prevent and reduce changes due to biological and chemical hazards that lead to spoilage • Always looking to extend shelf life • Spoilage: o Biotic spoilage is caused by microorganisms o Abiotic is caused by external factors such as oxygen, moisture, light, temperature, loss/gain of volatiles • We monitor water, light, temperature, oxygen, humidity, acidity to control for the above 4. Provide convenience • Consumers 2 | P a g e o Special opening, perfs, reseals, lids, portion dispensing features, ring pulls on cans, boil in a bag, bake in the box, etc. • Fillers/distributors/retailers o Specialized structures, coding systems for tracking, display systems 5. Give information • The "big picture" • Packaging is the main way products are identified • Last chance advertising • Opportunity for linking multiple media and printing methods • The "details" • This includes, ingredients, sell by dates, price, special offers, manufacturers address, contact information, product title, barcode and more. • Legal regulations to provide certain information 6. Sell the product 3 | P a g e L ECTURE #2: PACKAGING SUBSTRATE SUBSTRATES VS. MATERIALS • The material on which we print is referred to as a substrate • Other materials used in packaging that we do not directly print on we can call simply materials. o EX: A typical beer bottle has a paper label (substrate) and a glass bottle (material) • Common examples in packaging include plastic, paperboard, metal, corrugated and glass GLASS • One of the oldest forms of packaging • Common colors include clear (flint), green and amber • General glass workflow: o Ingredients are mixed > melted> formed > annealed > coated > inspected • Ingredients of glass include o Silica sand, soda ash and lime stone as well as cullet (recycled glass) • These are melted at temps over 1000 deg. Celsius • Gob: the amount of glass needed to make a bottle Advantages: Disadvantages: o Inert (does not interact with or taint what io coHeavys) ▪ Very important in food and pharma o Dangerous when broken o Great for long term storage o High energy costs for manufacturing o Good vertical strength for stacking o Cleaning glass is not so “green” o Can be hot-filled o Expensive equipment o Highly recyclable • Forming first makes a parison or blank mold to be formed further by either o Blow-and-blow (BB) o Press-and-blow (PB) o Narrow neck press-and-blow (NNPB) • Annealing o Glass leaves the former at about 450 dec. celsius o The annealing lehr cools it slowly so it doesn’t crack • Coating o Glass is prone to surface scratches from friction o Friction coating reduces this o Glass can me both hot and cold coated but the key is to reduce possible damage and therefore breakage • Glass breakage is a safety risk • All glass must be inspected • Mechanical systems use sensors, light and pressure to ensure the containers aren’t damaged 4 | P a g e METAL • Napoleon is often credited with pushing canning innovation — Nicolas Appert responded to the challenge • There are billions of cans in our packaging stream today • Moving from tin to seamless aluminum was a big advancement (1960’s for beer) • The aluminum beer bottle was introduced in 2000! • Advantages: o Low cost o Thermally stable o Easy to process on high-speed lines o Readily recyclable o Good moisture and light barriers o Excellent for long term storage o Strong (think about transportation, warehousing and storage) CANS: • Metal is 60 - 70% of the cost in can making o Made of aluminum or steel • 2-piece cans are faster than 3 piece cans, but limited in size • Often coated to prevent corrosion o Coating can be sprayed or applied through a set of rollers o If you don’t coat correctly the tin can leak into the food making people sick • Cans are often cooked (retort) o Beading cans can increase strength especially during retort o Aluminum is not usually used for retort (not strong enough) • Different types of closures like plain (need a can opener), ring pull or stay-on-tab o Where the closures are applied we need a hermetic seal • RETORT: o Using heat to sterilize a can o Liquid and solid is treated differently o 113 - 132 deg. Celcius “pressure cooked” for 5 min - 1hr+ (more solids = more time) COMMON CAN DEFECTS • all can bodies – low tin coating weight, badly formed flanges • coated surfaces – pinholes, poor adhesion, undercutting, underfilm staining, cracks in coating after necking in drink cans and after curling can ends • three-piece can bodies – poor weld strength, badly formed/incomplete weld • two-piece draw and wall ironed can bodies – pinholes in body or flange area • can ends (plain) – lining compound incorrect weight and bad placement • can ends (easy-open) – broken/leaking rivets, residual score out of specification, pop and pull loads out of specification 5 | P a g e PAPERBOARD • Also known as ‘cartonboard’, ‘cardboard’, ‘boxboard’ or just ‘board’ • Has a grammage of 250 gsm or over • Not only for boxes o Tubes o Liquid cartons (milk) o Trays... • EXAMPLES: o Set-up box o Tetra Pak o Folding carton o Cable top carton o Tube o Paper bags • Grain direction of paper matters • The flaps offer a lot of functionality (tuck flaps with friction locks) • Flaps impact nesting layout and how much paper we use • Different styles of locks for the bottom to make boxes easier to set up • Often also use interior product supports • Some considerations o Caliper based on requirement of the product o Filling line is important ▪ Side fill or vertical fill • Often used lined with aluminum film or polymer film o Not ideal for recycling o There are water based barrier coatings WBBC now PAPERBOARD TYPES • Solid bleached board (SBB): paperboard made from virgin bleached chemical pulp o Also called SBS or solid bleached sulphate • Solid unbleached board (SUB): paperboard made mainly from unbleached virgin chemical pulp o Also called SUS or solid unbleached sulphate o A layer of bleached fibre is sometimes added to the top to provide greater whiteness • Folding boxboard (FBB): made from a layer or layers of mainly virgin mechanical pulp sandwiched between layers of virgin chemical pulp. • White lined chipboard (WLC): made from multi-layers of recycled fibres. CORRUGATED • Often used for shipping TYPES OF CORRUGATED: • There are rules around the types of boxes that can go on truck and on • KRAFT rail • MOTTLED • Can be lined for appearance • BLEACH • A paper-based substrate made from: o Liner • COATED o Fluting material o Adhesive • Moulded pulp is also categorized here (egg cartons) 6 | P a g e FLUTES • The larger the flute, the greater the edge-on stiffness • The finer the flute, the better the printing • A-flute is rarely used for general shipping containers but has the highest top to bottom strength • A-flute has some application for triple-wall boards • C-flute used where box compression strength is important • B-flute compression strength is about 10% less than C-flute • B-flute prints better than C-flute PLASTICS • Most types are crude oil derivatives • Lightweight • Extruded or thermoformed o Easy to form • Very versatile...there is a plastic for pretty much every application • Polyethylenes (PE) o Low density and linear low density is film primarily used for shrink wrapping o High density, more opaque/rigid/strong than LD, used for household chemical bottles • Polypropylene (PP) o Can be used to hot fill o Used as a film in snacks, cookies, cakes and right for thermoformed containers for things like yogurt (called thin wall packaging) • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) o Today more popular in construction than in packaging o Concerns about manufacturing and migration of chemicals into food • Polystyrene (PS) o High Impact (HI) used in fruit and veggie trays — the poor barrier properties help fruit o “breathe” • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) o Water bottles, jars o Good oxygen barrier o Moving into cosmetics and even beer • Bio-based polymers o Made from biomass like sugar cane which is a renewable resource 7 | P a g e LECTURE#4: PREPRESS NEW STAKEHOLDERS • Structural designer • Diemaker • Consumer product company (CPC) or brand owner • More likely that prepress and printing are done by separate companies • Manufacturing a package is not the end of the manufacturing process • Printers convert raw materials which must then be filled with the product NEW SOFTWARE NEEDS • Project management software to manage all the pieces and the stakeholders • CAD (Computer Aided Design) (software ex. esko.com) • Palletization software ex. capesystems.com o Maximize the palette and prevent damages ▪ Especially important with small/partial orders PREPRESS - COLOUR • Colour in packaging is very important (helps consumers identify brand) • Traditionally printing = (CMYK) • Specialty inked and other colors outside the gamut (volume of colours) made by CMYK o Spot colours are used to bridge what CMYK cannot do o Pantone = a company that makes spot colours o For ex. you can only make about 30% of the Pantone library with CMYK alone • Reasons to use spot colours: o To protect brand identity o To print using a colour CMYK cannot make (like neon pink or silver) o To save money on a 2 colour job o To use the extended gamut method • By adding orange and green (sometimes violet) you can cover 50-90% of the Pantone library —this is called --- hexachorme printing o Today’s buzz word is extended gamut o Difficult to move through prepress and hard to control on press • Specialty finishes such as spot varnish can also be used on press • Many ways to achieve metal (shine) finishes without using ink o Foil stamping o Substrate selection PREPRESS - GRAPHIC DESIGN • Creating artwork from client briefs • Artwork is created on screen with industry standard software like the Adobe CC (Illustrator dominates the packaging prepress market) • CAD/CAM is used for creating packaging structure and layouts for cutting tables 8 | P a g e DIELINES PREPRESS - REPROGRAPHICS • Going from graphic design to the selected printing process • Separations: mostly automated, more complex for extended gamut or spot color printing with vignettes • Trapping: Image trapping is needed when two differently coloured objects are touching • It allows us to compensate for register shifts on the press • To do this we allow lighter colours to expand into the darker colours • Spread: the lighter object becomes larger by spreading into the darker • Choke: the darker object becomes smaller by being choked by the lighter colour • Dot control means you control the tonal value increase (TVI) of an ink on press o halftone dots are categorize into highlights, mid-tones, and shadows o Ink spreads ▪ How much depends on substrate and printing process ▪ We change dots so this spread doesn’t impact the print quality TYPOGRAPHY • Due to the nature of the flexographic process, text that prints positive will tend to fatten while text that is reversed out will tend to fill in, lose fine lines and serifs, and become plugged. • Type considerations o Serif vs. sans serif o Positive vs. reverse ▪ Revers is sometimes called negative o Single colour vs. multi-colour ▪ Type should not be made of more than 2 inks o Substrate and ink coverage BLENDS, VIGNETTES, GRADATIONS • The terms blend, vignette, gradation, fade-away, fountain, and graduated tint are used interchangeably • The main problem of using vignettes is banding • Blends are very difficult to trap • Blends containing spot colours are more complex BARCODES 9 | P a g e • Barcodes are used for a variety of reasons from scanning milk at retail checkouts to monitoring shipping crate inventory o Different barcodes exist for these different scanning conditions • GS1 US organization manages barcode standards in North America o This is who provides the appropriate UPC (Universal Product Codes) to products ▪ 12-digit Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) • Test the barcode before you go to press (we can do this with WebCenter) • Important considerations for bar codes o Direction of web printed substrates o Substrate choice o Location o Colour contrast o Quiet zones ▪ ex. 3/32 “ of no colour area around the barcode PROOFING • Digital proofing: using inkjet or electrophotography • Wet proofing: using a sample run with actual inks and substrates • Sign off and approval is often needed to run a job ▪ Either on a proof or during an actual press run  Called a press approval PROOFS AND PACKAGING • Concept/collaborative proofs o Colour accurate proofs o Used during initial design stages o Simulate TVI and contrast o Not colour profiled o Set the expectation for what the print • Colour target proofs will look like off the press o Ideal colour proof o Challenging in packaging because of o Some colours cannot be produced the high spot colour usage when printing • Soft proofs o Helps manage expectations o On screen concept proof • Comprehensive proof/mock-ups o Can be viewed both flat and as a 3D o Constructed into the final product mock-up o Not typically colour accurate (but o There are even iPhone apps to preview can be) packages! • Profiled contract proofs PROCESS CONTROL • Historically flexography could not match the quality of offset printing. This is changing rapidly. • Specialized printer’s marks must be placed strategically on the sheet to monitor quality o There are quality checks for the printing plates and the printed sheet o Test elements are commonly placed under flaps, in a glue zone or on the waste matrix o Some packaging requires the test elements to remain visible on the finished package 10 | P a g e LECTURE#5: PRINTING IMAGE TRANSFER • Files go from design through to the raster image processor (RIP), on to make a plate • Each printing process has it’s own RIP process and plate type • Computer to o Screen - light sensitive emulsion printed by inkjet is cured. Image area is unexposed and emulsion washed away so ink can squeeze through. o Gravure - direct laser engraving of a copper surface (chrome plated). Image area is engraved out to hold ink. o Relief plate: a photopolymer plate with a mask. Image area is ablated and then cured with UV, heat, or other wash out procedure. o Offset litho: a metal plate with an emulsion is exposed (with light or heat) to harden the image area. The non image area is then processed away. INKS : INK TYPES • A good ink is o controllable o dries (or sets) at the speed of printing o conveys information o can be used with many substrates • Conventional inks • UV inks o use organic solvents like alcohol o dry using UV light (no VOCs) o dry when solvent evaporates PRESSES: PRINTING PRESS CONFIGURATIONS • In line presses o Each ink has it’s own station with an impression o The more colors you have the longer the line of units o Can often do perfecting (printing on two sides) o Can do a web or sheets • Central Impression (CI) Presses o A single cylinder is used for impression o Take up less space o Hold tighter register o Cannot perfect • Stack presses o Printing units are separate but stacked instead of being in line o Less space o Can do perfecting 11 | P a g e IMAGE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES LETTERPRESS SCREEN • Like a stencil • Relief printing process o Raised printing area • Uses a screen through which ink passes onto the substrate • Uses very thick paste inks o non-image areas are masked • Dry offset letterpress • Flat bed or rotary o for cans or tubs (cylindrical shapes) • Slower drying inks and relatively slow process overall o image is a assembled on a blanket • Thick ink film thickness and transferred o great for special effects • Can be used to print on almost anything • Relatively low quality for detail GRAVURE • Intaglio process o image areas are recessed • uses a metal cylinder which is etched for image transfer o expensive image carrier • long runs • used a lot in wallpapers • high quality even in long-run situations • can print to many substrates • higher ink film thickness means it is good for specialty inks but bad for drying TAMPO (PAD) PRINTING • Similar to gravure o plate is etched out of nylon, steel or photopolymer • a pad is inked • that pad transfers the image FLEXOGRAPHY • Commonly called flexo • Relief printing method • Anilox roller is used to deposit ink onto the plate • Competitive process for labels, flexibles, and cartons • Image carrier can be a sheet or a sleeve LITHOGRAPHY • planographic printing process •
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