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Midterm

GCM 230 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Type B Cipher Machine, Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, Johannes Itten


Department
Graphic Communications
Course Code
GCM 230
Professor
Diana Brown
Study Guide
Midterm

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Stickies 13-02-28 9:16 PM
GRA 202 - LAYOUT & TYPOGRAPHY
MIDTERM STUDY NOTES
LECTURE 1: THE GRAPHIC DESIGN PROCESS
THE DESIGN PROCESS
1. Planning > 2. Design > 3. Development > 4. Feedback
* There is no one way*
- as such design usually solved a problem (ie. save money, environment, persuade)
THE GCM GDP
- what do you do when you are working?
- what steps do you take?
- is there room for improvement?
- were you missing steps?
OTHER GDP
1. Meet > Research > Conceptualize > Layout & Design > Present & Revise > Finalize
2. Breifing > Design > Artwork > Production
3. Define prob/goal > research > inspiration > sketch > digital implementation > feedback > more digi > colour & typefaces > final rev >
delivery
DESIGN BREIF
Purpose: get everyone on the client side on same page & give the designer a point of reference
Contains: corporate profile, backgrpound w/ position situation & communication, the message, target market, objectives, budjet, schedule
MIND MAPS
Components Include: floating topic, central topic, main topics Subtopics
DESIGN AND CROWDSOURCING
- the internet is changing the way we participate in design
- crowd sourcing is when you ask a question of the crowd
- Process: client posts job > designers respond w/ solution > client picks winning design
- sometimes refered to as spec work
- benefits client bc get to see end result for free > possible steal ideas and not pay designer for work
LECTURE 2: ELEMENTS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN - POINT, LINE & PLANE
ELEMENTS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN
Line, Colour, Texture, Size, Shape, Value Space
* Graphic Designers use type to communicate a message or line to create movement, or colour to create mood etc.*
THE CHALLENGE
- the way we identify & describe elements is varied
- there is no one process for graphic design & there is no set of "stuff" or "rules" either
- "Stuff = elements of design" & "Rules = principles of design"
DEFINITION
- Elements of graphic design: the components or content of the design, they can be tangible or work to embelish and define the tangible
- Physical Elements Include: point, line, plane/shape, space, texture, type
- Conditional Elements include: colour, value, size, volume
- Physical elements = physically defined presence
- Conditional elements = used to defined the physical
LUPTON'S DESIGN ELEMENTS
-Point: marks the position in space, everything is made up books have tonof points
- Line: a connection or path of two points, can hold information
- Plane: flat surface with a width and height, shapes are planes with edges
PHYSICAL: POINT
- Geometrically a point is a pair of x and y coordinates > point has no mass

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Page 2 of 6
Stickies 13-02-28 9:16 PM
- Graphically a point is a dot that forms a visible mark
- Many printing processes break images down into dots
- Points can be used to make a statement or just melt into the background matter
PHYSICAL: LINE
- infinite series of points
- width and lengtrh, but no depth
- connects points and/or creates path
- the direction of a line can convey mood: horizontal = calm, vertical = some movement, diagonal = lots of movement
- a line does not have to be a stroke in the strict sense > line of type or an implied line as a result of the shapes around it
- Line as Value: cross hatching creates areas of value and give an illusion of 3D
PHYSICAL: PLANE & SHAPE
- Plane: flat 2D surface extending into width and height (line with breadth)
- Shape: enclosed object 3D created by lines or by colour and value changes which define its edges
PHYSICAL: SPACE
- positive/negative space
- positive: foreground, placed by artist
- negative: background, surrounding the positive, also called space
- both very important
PHYSICAL: TEXTURE
- Example: Wood grain
PHYSICAL: TYPE
- unique because it consists of other graphic elements but also carries meaning
- adding a new treatment to type livens the message
CONDITIONAL: COLOUR
- science: colour occurs when light in different wavelengths strikes our eyes
- psychology: carries meaning and conveys an attitude
CONDITIONAL: VALUE
- value refers to the relative lightness or darkness of a certain area
- creates a 3D illusion of depth
CONDITIONAL: SIZE
- scale and proportion are usually externally imposed (packaging, magazine, billboard etc)
- it still requires consideration ex. high quality products in small sizes are "precious"
CONDITIONAL: VOLUME
- the space held by a 3D object
- less applicable to print design
- 2D: width and height
- 3D: volume and mass
LECTURE #3 - RHYTHM, BALANCE & SCALE
BALANCE
- balance is sought after commodity in our culture
- visual balance occurs when elements are distributed evenly or proprotionally in space
- counterpoint is used to anchor big/small or light/dark elements
- there are different types of balance > most common way to describe it is symmetrical or asymmetrical
RHYTHM
- a strong regular repeated pattern
- speech, music, dance use rhythm to express form over time
- graphic designers use it to have duration and sequence
- patter has unbroken repetition
- most designs punctuate with change and variation > ex. Books have tonal variation but maintain overall structural unity
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