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Ryerson University
Graphic Communications
GCM 230
Diana Brown

Stickies 13-02-28 9:16 PM GRA 202 - LAYOUT & TYPOGRAPHY MIDTERM STUDY NOTES LECTURE 1: THE GRAPHIC DESIGN PROCESS THE DESIGN PROCESS 1. Planning > 2. Design > 3. Development > 4. Feedback * There is no one way* - as such design usually solved a problem (ie. save money, environment, persuade) THE GCM GDP - what do you do when you are working? - what steps do you take? - is there room for improvement? - were you missing steps? OTHER GDP 1. Meet > Research > Conceptualize > Layout & Design > Present & Revise > Finalize 2. Breifing > Design > Artwork > Production 3. Define prob/goal > research > inspiration > sketch > digital implementation > feedback > more digi > colour & n>lrev >s delivery DESIGN BREIF Purpose: get everyone on the client side on same page & give the designer a point of reference Contains: corporate prolfie, backgrpound w/ position situation & communication, the message, target market, objectives, budjet, schedule MIND MAPS Components Include: flating topic, central topic, main topics Subtopics DESIGN AND CROWDSOURCING - the internet is changing the way we participate in design - crowd sourcing is when you ask a question of the crowd - Process: client posts job > designers respond w/ solution > client picks winning design - sometimes refered to as spec work - benefits client bc get to see end result for free > possible steal ideas and not pay designer for work LECTURE 2: ELEMENTS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN - POINT, LINE & PLANE ELEMENTS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN Line, Colour, Texture, Size, Shape, Value Space * Graphic Designers use type to communicate a message or line to create movement, or colour to create mood etc.* THE CHALLENGE - the way we identify & describe elements is varied - there is no one process for graphic design & there is no set of "stuff" or "rules" either - "Stuff = elements of design" & "Rules = principles of design" DEFINITION - Elements of graphic design: the components or content of the design, they can be tangible or work to emndtdheefitangible - Physical Elements Include: point, line, plane/shape, space, texture, type - Conditional Elements include: colour, value, size, volume - Physical elements = physicallyned presence - Conditional elements = used to denfied the physical LUPTON'S DESIGN ELEMENTS -Point: marks the position in space, everything is made up books have tonof points - Line: a connection or path of two points, can hold information - Plane: flat surface with a width and height, shapes are planes with edges PHYSICAL: POINT - Geometrically a point is a pair of x and y coordinates > point has no mass Page 1 of 6 Stickies 13-02-28 9:16 PM - Graphically a point is a dot that forms a visible mark - Many printing processes break images down into dots - Points can be used to make a statement or just melt into the background matter PHYSICAL: LINE - infinite series of points - width and lengtrh, but no depth - connects points and/or creates path - the direction of a line can convey mood: horizontal = calm, vertical = some movement, diagonal = lots of movement - a line does not have to be a stroke in the strict sense > line of type or an implied line as a result of the shapes around it - Line as Value: cross hatching creates areas of value and give an illusion of 3D PHYSICAL: PLANE & SHAPE - Plane: flat 2D surface extending into width and height (line with breadth) - Shape: enclosed object 3D created by lines or by colour and value changes whiceets edges PHYSICAL: SPACE - positive/negative space - positive: foreground, placed by artist - negative: background, surrounding the positive, also called space - both very important PHYSICAL: TEXTURE - Example: Wood grain PHYSICAL: TYPE - unique because it consists of other graphic elements but also carries meaning - adding a new treatment to type livens the message CONDITIONAL: COLOUR - science: colour occurs when light in different wavelengths strikes our eyes - psychology: carries meaning and conveys an attitude CONDITIONAL: VALUE - value refers to the relative lightness or darkness of a certain area - creates a 3D illusion of depth CONDITIONAL: SIZE - scale and proportion are usually externally imposed (packaging, magazine, billboard etc) - it still requires consideration ex. high quality products in small sizes are "precious" CONDITIONAL: VOLUME - the space held by a 3D object - less applicable to print design - 2D: width and height - 3D: volume and mass LECTURE #3 - RHYTHM, BALANCE & SCALE BALANCE - balance is sought after commodity in our culture - visual balance occurs when elements are distributed evenly or proprotionally in space - counterpoint is used to anchor big/small or light/dark elements - there are different types of balance > most common way to describe it is symmetrical or asymmetrical RHYTHM - a strong regular repeated pattern - speech, music, dance use rhythm to express form over time - graphic designers use it to have duration and sequence - patter has unbroken repetition - most designs punctuate with change and variation > ex. Books have tonal variation but maintain overall structural unity Page 2 of 6 Stickies 13-02-28 9:16 PM RHYTHM & BALANCE - rhythm and balance work togehter - repetition and change awaken visual form > repeat the elements for consistency, vary size and intensity to create surprise - focal points carry a viewers eye across the page - grid creates progression of pages SYMMETRY - white space in a symmetrical design is passive - three types of symmetrical design: bilateral, rotational, crystallographic - can sometimes be a combination of types of symmetrical design FACT BOMB PANTONE Number for Tiffany's Blue is PMS 1837. Based on the year the company was founded. SCALE -increasingly we are designing for multiple media and multiple scales - screen is different than poster is different than side of a bus is different than a business card - sometimes you know this in advance - other times you have to re-purpose the designs - Objective: literal dimensions of a physical object and/pr a correlation between a representation and the real thing it depicts - Subjective: one's impression of an objects size - Scale can depend on context - scale is relative - contrast in scale can imply: motion, depth, express a difference in importance - Varying scale can introduce some tensin and make a design more dynamic - Small shapes appear to recede - large shapes appear to move forward - you can imply scale because it is relative - to scale is to change the dimension of an object - scaling can change the meaning and impact of an element - scaling something disproportionally can break it LECTURE #4 - TEXTURE & COLOUR TEXTURE - Surface quality of an object - tactile impressions on a 2D picture - physical: relating to the substrate - virtual: optical representations - textures can be in harmony or in contrast to one another - in design, texture can be used to add meaning and create interest to draw the viewer in COLOUR - from color as science: optics, physics, chemistry - from colour as an art: emotion, aesthetic, culture COLOUR THEORY - the study of colour mixing and colour impact - colour is different wavelength of visible light - how it works: red wavelength rflcted off red ball, all others absorbed - visible spectrum: R O Y G B I V ADDITIVE COLOUR SYSTEM - system of white light > RGB added together to create white - the way in which your TV works - the medium is projected light SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR SYSTEM - system of colour pigments > CMYK added together to make black - mixing 2 colours changes the wavelength to produce a new colour Page 3 of 6 Stickies 13-02-28 9:16 PM
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