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Final

Exam Prep.docx


Department
History
Course Code
HST 540
Professor
Christopher Pennington
Study Guide
Final

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Module 1
Definition of intelligence:
Intelligence is the umbrella term referring to the range of activities from planning and
information collection to analysis and dissemination conducted in secret, and aimed at
maintaining or enhancing relative security by providing forewarning of threats or potential
threats in a manner that allows for the timely implementation of a preventive policy or strategy,
including, where desirable, covert activities. (Intelligence in an Insecure World, p. 7)
Intelligence Cycle:
The intelligence cycle defines the central process of the intelligence work. General informational
flow. It consists of five main phases: planning and direction, collection, processing, analysis and
dissemination. Errors can occur at any stage of that process. Distortions could arise from the
miscommunication between intelligence professionals and decision-makers. Analysts must avoid
succumbing to "politicization"spinning intelligence to serve certain political needs of a policy
maker.
Planning and Direction - leaders and intelligence managers must decide what information
should be gathered.
o What information would be useful.
o Issues:
Scope of the collection depend on state’s affluence. Wealthier nations
have the means to expand the breadth of intelligence requirements.
choices have to be made about the direction of intelligence work since
can’t cover world
Distortions can arise from flawed communication between intelligence
professionals and policy-makers.
Decision-makers are often: unable to clearly outline their priorities;
ignorant of what is involved in the intelligence work; unwilling to
devote enough time for consultation with intelligence services; or
blinded by ideological stubbornness.
Agencies must be selected but rivalry between organizations may brew.
Best to task priorities so it does not affect entire intelligence cycle and
produce intelligence that is irrelevant, inaccurate and unusable.
Collection - tasking must be translated into specific targets
o Other states (enemies and friends); specific individuals; corporations or
companies; or specific topics of interests (e.g. nuclear capabilities).
o ―threat assessment‖ is conducted to assess the significance of various potential
targets.

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More affluent nations have a ―global presence‖—permanent assets in most
of the world’s regions—which allow them to simply use these resources to
gather intelligence.
with smaller states—a ―global surge‖ is initiated which involves sending
assets temporarily into an area of interest.
o various methods and strategies are involved in the actual gathering of
intelligence.
intelligence can be gathered from physical or verbal sources. Physical
intelligence comes from things and not words. It involves seeing marching
armies, enemy trenches, or noise of moving vehicles. Verbal intelligence
is information from written or oral sources such as reports or interrogation.
different types of intelligence: opint (open source intelligence); humint
(human intelligence); and a variety of techint (technical intelligence)
which can include imint (imagery intelligence) or sigint (signals
intelligence).
Processing and Analysis - Information will remain hidden or useless unless you know
what to look for or what you are looking at. And it is through processing and analysis that
raw information is validated and selected for dissemination and consumption.
o For most effective results, analysis requires four things.
Blending of osint, teching and humintwhat the professionals call "all-
source fusion" of intelligence. Information from a variety of sources is
fused together in a search for insights and meaning in unevaluated data.
demands a brigade of well-educated specialists.
it requires interagency cooperation. Various agencies or services can offer
different types of information and perspectives. Intelligence liaison within
and between nations has become a key ingredient.
involves strong intelligence managers with authority and knowhow.
o these mistakes can lead to intelligence failures:
Analysts are often pressed to move into the realm of speculation and
guessing, facing many pitfalls that they must try to avoid. Crying wolf too
often by exaggerating the nature of the threat can hurt the credibility of
agencies.
Succumbing to politicization could lead to intelligence being span or
cooked to serve the political needs of a policy-maker.
Ethnocentric bias (or mirroring) could lead to the projecting of one's own
cultural beliefs and values on others.
Analysts are also prone to wishful thinking which involves excessive
optimism or status quo assumptions that events will proceed along a
straight line to avoid unpleasant or contradictory conclusions. If not
caught in time,
Dissemination - makes its way into the hands of policy-makers and leaders who make
important decisions about a nation's security.

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o Intelligence must have several key attributes such as relevance, timely and
accurate.
o Decision-makers in turn must make effective use of the provided intelligence.
o It allows leaders to engage in operations and activities that result in successful
outcomes.
o Actionable intelligencereliable and timely information that can be used to take
a course of actionallows for operations to be carried out with confidence.
o Intelligence agencies do engage in aggressive activities called covert action
through which events and people abroad are manipulated or coerced to advance a
nation’s interests.
This can take multiple forms: propaganda, political and economic action
or paramilitary operations.
counterintelligence - a key mission of intelligence services is the
protection of a nation against hostile intelligence agencies and other
adversaries (i.e. states and transnational terrorist organizations)
Great Game:
One example of the pre-modern espionage was the "Great Game" between Tsarist Russia
and Great Britain, which took the form of a Cold War over imperial rivalry in Central
Asia.
Both empires engaged in the Great Gamespying on their enemy.
o Russia's southward expansion came against the British Empire which centered on
India, which many considered the "jewel of the British imperial crown."
o Both states tried to influence third parties to satisfy their own national interests in
the expansive borderlands of India's North-West Frontier.
o By the 1850s, the rivalry between the two Great Powers was becoming fierce,
especially in the aftermath of the Crimean War, when they fought on opposite
sides.
o By the middle of the century, Britain considered Russia one of her main
competitors in international relations.
This involved young officers who sought adventure by going into enemy territory to
gather intelligence.
These amateurs had no training in espionage.
Officers were sent out to collect military-statistical data, to observe defensive
fortifications, troop numbers, and assess the local attitudes.
When captured, they were questions and released without any recourse. Until less than a
decade before the outbreak of the First World War, all of the Great Powers took a
remarkably tolerant attitude towards amateur espionage. There was even a sense of
camaraderie amongst foreign rivals.
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