Exam Prep Part 2.docx
Course CodeHST 540
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Gehlen Organization was an intelligence agency established in June 1946 by U.S. occupation
authorities in the United States Zone of Germany, and consisted of former members of the 12th
Department of the Army General Staff (Foreign Armies East, or FHO). It carries the name of Reinhard
Gehlen. Had alliance with CIA
Gehlen had realized that the Nazis would be defeated and began planning a strategic surrender to
the Allies. His bargaining chip was a microfilmed copy of the German intelligence archive on the
Soviet Union. In the summer of 1945, Gehlen and his senior aides surrendered to the American
Army Counter-Intelligence Corps. Although initially wavering, the Allies quickly recognized his
experience and knowledge about the West's new emerging adversary. Gehlen was then able to
negotiate an agreement with the U.S., allowing his work in intelligence to continue despite the
Using former SS, Gestapo and Abwehr employees, Gehlen quickly reconstituted functioning secret
services with extensive espionage networks. The Gehlen group assumed an inconspicuous name of
the South German Industrial Development Organization, simply known as the Org. The Org trained
and operated several networks of spies, saboteurs, informants and agents throughout Eastern
Europe, becoming a critical asset in the CIA's arsenal against the Soviets in Europe. Thousands
were trained for operational missions behind the Iron Curtain. By the mid 1950s, the Org became the
nucleus of the Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst, BND), with Gehlen at the
Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst, BND)
foreignintelligence agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Chancellor's Office.
The BND acts as an early warning system to alert the German government to threats to German interests
from abroad. It depends heavily on wiretapping and electronic surveillance of international
communications. It collects and evaluates information on a variety of areas such as international
terrorism, WMD proliferation and illegal transfer of technology, organized crime, weapons and drug
trafficking, money laundering, illegal migration and information warfare
The BND is a successor to the Gehlen Organization. The most central figure in its history was Reinhard
Gehlen, its first President.
Directorate of the External Security (DGSE)
France's external intelligence agency. Operating under the direction of the French ministry of defence,
the agency works alongside the DCRI (the Central Directorate of Interior Intelligence) in providing
intelligence and national security, notably by performing paramilitary and counterintelligence operations
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By 1946, these wartime operations were consolidated into the External Documentation Counter-
Espionage Service (SDECE). Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the SDECE was involved in many
Its infamous history has been highlighted in its involvement in Indochina's drug trade, Algerian
counter insurgency, and the separatist movement in Quebec. The SDECE generated huge profits by
controlling illicit drug trafficking to fund their operations throughout East Asia. It acquired a reputation
for ruthlessness and brutality in the decolonization struggles in Algeria and Northern Africa. Lastly, it
was implicated in supporting the separatist groups in Quebec. In the early 1980s, the SDECE
became the Directorate of the External Security (DGSE), the name by which it is known today.
Mossad (Mossad Letafkidim Meyuchadim)
Israel: The Mossad (Mossad Letafkidim Meyuchadim) assumed the role of the central institute for
the coordination and organization of foreign intelligence, becoming responsible for humint, covert
action and counter-terrorism.
The Israeli intelligence community has been highly successful over the years in penetrating their
neighbours and launching covert and paramilitary operations. For instance, in 1960, the Mossad
carried out one of its most famous operations—the kidnapping of Adolph Eichmann, a Nazi war
criminal, and bringing him to trial in Israel. Furthermore, the secret services have had a reputation for
resorting to assassinations as a matter of state policy. For example, the Mossad retaliated ruthlessly
against those involved in the 1972 massacre of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics.
in the 1920s, the Communists responded with the establishment of two intelligence groups, which
eventually amalgamated into the Social Affairs Department (SAD) under the watchful eye of Kang
Sheng. Kang had learned the tradecraft from the NKVD in Moscow and had turned out to be an
astute and talented student of espionage. Following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937,
Kang masterfully reorganized Mao Tse Tung's intelligence to support the campaign against both the
KMT and the Japanese. Once the Japanese Empire was defeated, intelligence became a tool in the
civil war between the Communists and the nationalists.
Ministry of State Security (MSS)
The Cultural Revolution, launched in the latter half of the 1960s, left no institution untouched. The
leadership of the intelligence services was sent for "re-education." Meanwhile, Keng, who had
entered politics after 1949, returned to his espionage roots to initiate a massive purge of the
Communist Party. Thousands of loyal party members and innocent victims were killed under the
direction of the CID. By the early 1980s, the CID was merged with the counter-intelligence work (of
the Ministry of Public Security) to create the Ministry of State Security (MSS). Much of the work of
the MSS has centered on internal subversion, anti-Communist exiles, and economic espionage
(especially in the United States).
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BRUSA, had built a foundation for future collaboration. Already in the fall of 1945, the British
Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and the American joint group (combining
members from OP-20-G and Army Signal Security Agency, which lay the building blocks of the
National Security Agency, NSA) began the complex negotiations. Disputes over jurisdiction and
division of labour were finally resolved in 1948, when five countries agreed to the U.K.-U.S.A.
Security Agreement. In addition to the two leading states, other participations included New Zealand,
Australia and Canada. Over the years, third-party members have also been brought into the
agreement. To this day, UKUSA remains the world's largest alliance for collection of signals
intelligence. It operates at least 120 satellite-based collection systems.
In the post-World War II period, Iran once again fell into the Western sphere of influence, given the
extensive British interests in the country’s oil deposits. However, trouble began brewing, as the
Iranians demanded a larger share in the profits reaped from their main natural resource. The British
refusal stimulated resentment, which culminated in the Iranian government’s demand for a
renegotiation of the petroleum concessions. The Anglo-Iranian talks stalled, even when the White
House urged London to agree to the new arrangements. Finally, the democratically elected Prime
Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh decided to acquiesce the growing pressure to nationalize the oil
company. The British were furious and responded by blocking imports to Iran and the export of oil to
From 1953 onward, the CIA and MI6 cooperated regarding the overthrow of Mosaddegh. Foremost,
the Shah (i.e. Emperor) of Iran was convinced to support the Anglo-American intervention. As the
head of state, he issued a royal decree dismissing Mosaddegh and appointing a military general to
the position of the prime minister. Simultaneously, a variety of means were utilized to delegitimize
Mosaddegh’s support base. Iranian officials, officers, and businessmen were bribed. Journalists
were paid off to publish articles against the Prime Minister. Street thugs were hired to foment
violence. Some of these even pretended to be Communists who were supposedly urged by
Mosaddegh (and his Soviet supporters) to overthrow order in Iran. Amidst violence and instability,
the army was convinced to side with the Shah. Eventually, Mosaddegh was arrested and tried, while
the Shah assumed absolute rule in Iran.
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, an army captain, was democratically elected as the country’s president and
began to promote social and political transformation. He began to expropriate uncultivated land from
the UFC and country elites, distributing it amongst the poor peasantry. Given the seemingly radical
pace and nature of these reforms, and due to pressures from the UFC, Arbenz’s government was
branded as Communist. The American intelligence services looked at his land reforms and assumed
that Communism was establishing a beachhead in Latin America.
The CIA began to draw plans for Operation PBFortunne—the overthrow of Arbenz. The Latin
American dictators boasted about their involvement, revealing the nature of the plot against
Guatemala. The United States quickly scrapped PBFortune and launched PBSuccess.
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