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HST702 - midterm review

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HST 702
Tomaz Jardim

1 HST702 Midterm Review October 11, 2013 Tomaz Jardim Lecture 1: Introduction Why WWI is the most important event of the 20th century - Destruction/death toll - Global conflict for the first time - Scale of destruction o 9M military casualties o 12M civilians dead - First total war o Affecting soldiers and society as a whole (women in factories/women) - War raging beyond European borders changes the world Queen Victoria - Had been on the throne a long time - Empress of an empire on which the sun never set o The British controlled so much of the world - Symbolized modern civilization - Her grandson: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany o He’s responsible for starting the war - Most Europeans saw themselves as living in prosperity Voting Rights - All men over the age of 21 could vote - Great Britain: only 2/3 of men could vote because of tax bracket (you're too low class to vote) - Women didn't have the vote anywhere Currents of social change bubbling up - Creating anxiety - Movement aimed at empowering workers - Movement to gain women the vote Workers get organized - Some workers wanted to destroy the dictatorship of the proletariat (Karl Marx) Women - Had to fight for basic things - Right before the war: women unify over a single cause (voting rights) - GB: women took radical means o Gain attention of government officials o Take radical means (smashing windows, setting railway cars on fire, hunger strikes), causing anxiety - Emily Davis becomes a martyr for suffrage when she rain in front of the King's Horse (1913) Some people were concerned what a 20th century war would look like - People didn't understand what a modern war would look like - The last time a war had been fought in Europe was in 1871 (Franco-Prussian War) Ivan Bloch - Wrote about what the next war would look like (end of the 19th century) - If you're looking at the Franco-Prussian war and think that what wars look like, you're wrong. No war will ever be the same - Interested in warfare technology - Foresees that this will be a war of entrenchment and stalemate Lecture 2: The Long Fuse Origins of the First World War - Class relations chancing with emergence of powerful working class - Challenge to status quo 2 o Women wanted the vote - What would a modern war look like? o Change in technology - Why was war a possibility? o Why was the prospect of war a wonderful opportunity? Assassination of Franz Ferdinand - Heir of Austro-Hungarian empire Great Britain - Seen as being the most powerful nation in Europe in 1914 - In control of the largest colonial empire o By 1900, ¼ of the world’s population was ruled by the British - First state to industrialize - All states hungry for more power - Great Britain doesn’t want anything o change because they’re on top France - True republic since 1870, legitimately democratic - Electoral system = proportional representation (minority coalition government) - Germans fought the French and took Alsace and Loraine (1871) - Dream of revenge against the Germans - Big lender of loans to Russia Russia - Far less politically involved than other states in Europe - Ruled by absolute monarch (Tsar Nicholas II) - Ruled by huge bureaucracy o Corrupt o Inefficient - Great European powers afraid of Russia o Because of size of Russia and size of population - Peasant economy - Way behind other states - Extreme economic backwardness Austria-Hungary - Russia’s sworn enemy - Old-style authoritarian monarchy - Ruled by emperor Franz Josef - Multi-ethnic empire - Unhappy population of Bosnians/Slovakians o They want to be independent - Austria Hungary wants to keep the empire unified Germany - Power exclusively in the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm II - Germans begin building a nave in hopes of having a huge global empire - Invested in industry - Large well-educated population - Germans have fixation that Germany is being isolated by the other states - Anxiety about socialist parties Building of Empires - Everyone races to conquer territories outside of Europe - Germany thinks seizing territory is the best way to gather power - Imperial division of Africa o Friction between European powers Conflict of Colonialism Pushed the Alliances Together - Tripe Entente: Great Britain, France, Russia - Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Europe is a continent thick with fear and suspicion 3 Lecture 3: Crisis in the Balkans - 28 June 1914: archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne get shot by an assassin o Spark that started WWI - Relations between the two power block of states in Europe were strained o Imperialism and the attempt to expand the bound of power  Africa completely occupied and taken by states of Europe - Arms race o If one wanted to be great and build a global empire, a bug powerful navy/army is needed o Size of navies and armies doubled in a short amount of time o Germany looking for its place in the sun - Germans began building ships at an alarming rate o British uneasy about growing strength of Germany o Faced challenge in preserving supremacy o British ready to do whatever it takes to stay on top o British create the Dreadnought in response to the naval race against Germany - Europe was a tense place before 1914, especially as Europe had divided itself into 2 rival alliances o Triple Entente - Great Britain, France, Russia o Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy - A lot of talk of war at the beginning of the 20th century o Fear of a war with Germany had filtered down into British consciousness o The Riddle of the Sands - fictional German invasion of Britain - Increasing posturing for war taking place in Britain - 1913: Count Helmuth von Moltke writes to Austrian counterpart o A European war is bound to occur sooner or later - Militarism was at its peak - Relationships between the states of Europe were very strained - Balkans = south eastern Europe - Turkey was the last hub of the Ottoman Empire o Ottoman Empire had been very large and the Ottomans had occupied the Balkan region o In the late 1870s, the Ottomans are pushed out of Southeastern Europe o Austria-Hungary, Russia and Serbia muscling each other to occupy the Balkan region  Serbia has a dream of uniting the Slavic population in Europe o Austro-Hungarians don't like the Serbians because they have a large Slavic population and they don't want to let go of it - 1908: Austro-Hungarians take over Bosnia so Serbia can't expand into Bosnia o Austro-Hungarians now have a lot of Slavic under their rule, and they don't want to be there o Bosnians thought they should be a part of Serbia because they spoke the same language/had the same culture o Bosnians want to break away o Austro-Hungarians scared that if Bosnians break away, all the other ethnic groups want to break way - Austria-Hungary had terrible relations with Serbians o Austro-Hungarians convinced the Serbians are egging on the Bosnians o Austro-Hungarians can't take over Serbia because of Russia so Austria-Hungary is pissed at Russia too - Terrorist group - The Black Hand o Want to destroy the authority of Austria Hungary o Want to break away from Austria-Hungary o Want to merge with Serbia or break away and create their own Slavic state - Little Bosnia o Hated Austro-Hungarian regime - June 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo o Perfect target for the rage of the terrorist groups o Ferdinand was a liberal minded conformer  Intended to institute liberal reforms  Wanted to give autonomy o Ferdinand was the Inspector General of the army, he was travelling in his military position, his wife Sophie was allowed to come along o Ferdinand planned to travel to Sarajevo to celebrate their anniversary - 28 June: the anniversary of the defeat of the Serbs by the Turks o National day for Serbs to think about their past o Still burying the burden of their imperial rule o Something tactless about Ferdinand coming to Sarajevo on that day  Flaunting imperial power - As they were driving through Sarajevo, they were attacked by Slavic nationalists o 6 assassins in total, 6 teenagers 4 o Archduke going along the block, the 6 terrorists station themselves along the way hoping to get a clear shot o The first couldn't figure out how to get his gun out of his pocket o The second got scared when a cop ended up beside him o The third didn't want to shoot the wife o The fourth just didn't want to o The fifth throws an explosive, hits the car behind the Archduke o The sixth (Gavrilo Princip), 19 year old Bosnian Serb  Thinks the bomb went off and they succeeded  He sees the Archduke go by, and thinks they lost their opportunity  Archduke's driver takes a wrong turn  Princip sees the Archduke coming back, shoots Ferdinand, attempts to shoot the governor, misses and shoots Sophie - Austria-Hungary PISSED about the assassination - Princip is an ethnic Serb - Austria-Hungary is convinced that Serbia must have been behind the assassination - Franz Joseph doesn't invite anyone from other states to Ferdinand's funeral o He doesn't want to come to a compromise with anyone o He wants to deal with Serbia but they're not strong enough to do it (because of Russia) o He turns to Germany - Wilhelm II convinced that Germany is being encircled o Last person to back down from a fight o In his best interest to keep Austria-Hungary strong o Bethmann-Hollweg responds to Austria with the Blank Cheque  We are giving you a cheque, we will support you - Von Moltke thinks war has to happen a.s.a.p. - 23 July 1914: Germans made demands to Serbia that were so severe that there was no way Serbia could accept and remain an independent state o Serbia accepts all but one o Austrians want to investigate the assassination, Serbia says hell no - Austria Hungary begins to mobilize their army - Germany's Russian allies announces that the troops aren’t mobilizing, but they're getting prepared - German's say Russians are going to take time, so Austria-Hungary should start and finish the affair before the Russians enter - First official declaration of war o Between Austria and Serbia o 28 July, Austria declares war on Serbia o First shots of war immediately follow (24 hours later) Wilhelm II - Withered left arm, source of insecurity for him his shoe life - Comes to the throne in 1888 - Thinks like old absolutist kings - Sees himself as leader of armies and empire - Loved uniforms - Germany was lucky that he was lazy - He thought his nation was in trouble o Social Democratic Party (SDP) was becoming more popular - He thought everything would be solved by following an aggressive foreign policy o Building a large army/navy o Creating a large colonial empire - The same day the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Tsar Nicholas partly mobilizes his troops against Austria-Hungary o Couldn’t do that, so the troops get fully mobilized against the Germans - Germans say halt your mobilization or else - Tsar Nicholas II and Wilhelm II are cousins - Germany declares war on Russia August 1, 1914 Schliefen Plan - Devised by old German chief of staff - Designed to prevent Germany from having to fight two states at once - If there is a war with Russia or France, they can quickly conquer France and head to Russia before Russia can get their troops together - France gets drawn into the war because the Germans have to defeat France first - German think Schliefen plan is the only way to victory - Germans declare war on France August 3 - Belgians have allied with the British o Germans have to cross through Belgium, Britain gets drawn into the war 5 Lecture 4: To the Western Front and the Marne “War Fever” in Europe, 1914 - The Power of Nationalism - “Home by Christmas”: Illusions of a Short War The Schlieffen Plan on Paper and in Practice - Belgian Neutrality and Great Britain War on the Western Front - Atrocities in Belgium and the “German Brute” - Von Moltke’s Great Mistake Great Battles in the West - The Battle of Mons and the Battle of the Marne - The Stalemate Begins Lecture 5: No End in Sight: To the Eastern Front, Ypres and Beyond 1 - Fighting the Two Front War o The German and Russian Armies - Germans want to go through Belgium to take France (Schlieffen Plan) - Belgium had a treaty with Great Britain guaranteeing their sovereignty and neutrality - Germans get through 25 miles to Paris, but get pushed back 75 miles - Trenches created - German army had a lot going for it  Very skilled general staff  Experimenting with new weapons  Exploring all the problems that they could face  Huge army filled with lots of enthusiastic nationalist recruits - Germany had an army of 800,000 soldiers in 1914  High standards, best weapons  First to grasp the potential of the machine gun - Germany had such a strong army because they stayed in the system for a very long time  Basically from 18 to 45 years of age - Germany is outnumbered 2:1 because hey have to fight the Russians AND the French/British - Germans get stuck in France, Russians take the opportunity to attack - Russia is under pressure to aid the Serbians - Russians face new pressure from France (they have an alliance)  Alliance with France is more important than alliance with Serbia - Tsar creates two separate armies that will fight two separate wars  Russians attack Germany from the east, compromising Germany's position, helping France  Second army comes to the aid of Serbia, attacking Austria-Hungary, taking the weight off Serbia  Attack eastern most province - Russians have 1.5M men in active duty (huge ass army)  Reflection of backwardness of Russian society  Peasant society = peasant army  Illiteracy  1/3 of Russia's army couldn't be supplied with rifles so they got oak clubs  They made a line behind the soldiers with guns and picked up guns when they were taken down - Huge amount of friction between everyday Russian soldiers and the elites who led them into battle 2 - The Russian Attack on Germany o The Fight for East Prussia - Russians mobilized more quickly than von Schlieffen had thought they would - Time was of the essence for Russia - They want to fight them when Germany wouldn't expect it - 15 August 1914, Russian Northern army backstabbed Germany  Rennenkampf's army attacked on the East in East Prussia  Samsonov's army attacked further to the south 6 - Germany in trouble  They attack full frontal to the East (Rennenkampf)  Commander of the 8th army proposes massive retreat back to German territory, surrendering East Prussia to Russia  Kaiser says hell no o Hindenburg and Ludendorff to the Rescue! - First clear heroes of WWI - Hindenburg fought in the Franco-Prussian war - Comes out of retirement to aid the German army - Old war hero - stability/nobility - Ludendorff is Hindenburg's chief of staff - They can’t fight both armies at once, so they leave a single unit to wait for Rennenkampf's army - Turn all of their attention towards Samsonov's army o The Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes - 50,000 Russians killed and 90,000 taken prisoner - Hindenburg and Ludendorff presented this as one of the biggest vitro ties in history - Samsonov’s forces destroyed to the south - Move all of their forces to the east to meet Rennenkampf - September 13th, Russians have been totally repelled by the Germans - 70,000 Russians dead, 130,000 taken prisoner - Hindenburg and Ludendorff seen as heroes that saved Germany 3 - The Austro-Hungarian Campaigns o General Conrad and the war in Galicia and Serbia - Austro-Hungarians not up for fighting the Russ
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