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HST702 final exam review

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Department
History
Course
HST 702
Professor
Tomaz Jardim
Semester
Fall

Description
1 HST702 Final Exam Review December 12, 2013 Tomaz Jardim Lecture 1: Introduction Why WWI is the most important event of the 20th century - Destruction/death toll - Global conflict for the first time - Scale of destruction o 9M military casualties o 12M civilians dead - First total war o Affecting soldiers and society as a whole (women in factories/women) - War raging beyond European borders changes the world Queen Victoria - Had been on the throne a long time - Empress of an empire on which the sun never set o The British controlled so much of the world - Symbolized modern civilization - Her grandson: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany o He’s responsible for starting the war - Most Europeans saw themselves as living in prosperity Voting Rights - All men over the age of 21 could vote - Great Britain: only 2/3 of men could vote because of tax bracket (you're too low class to vote) - Women didn't have the vote anywhere Currents of social change bubbling up - Creating anxiety - Movement aimed at empowering workers - Movement to gain women the vote Workers get organized - Some workers wanted to destroy the dictatorship of the proletariat (Karl Marx) Women - Had to fight for basic things - Right before the war: women unify over a single cause (voting rights) - GB: women took radical means o Gain attention of government officials o Take radical means (smashing windows, setting railway cars on fire, hunger strikes), causing anxiety - Emily Davis becomes a martyr for suffrage when she rain in front of the King's Horse (1913) Some people were concerned what a 20th century war would look like - People didn't understand what a modern war would look like - The last time a war had been fought in Europe was in 1871 (Franco-Prussian War) Ivan Bloch - Wrote about what the next war would look like (end of the 19th century) - If you're looking at the Franco-Prussian war and think that what wars look like, you're wrong. No war will ever be the same - Interested in warfare technology - Foresees that this will be a war of entrenchment and stalemate Lecture 2: The Long Fuse Origins of the First World War - Class relations chancing with emergence of powerful working class - Challenge to status quo o Women wanted the vote 2 - What would a modern war look like? o Change in technology - Why was war a possibility? o Why was the prospect of war a wonderful opportunity? Assassination of Franz Ferdinand - Heir of Austro-Hungarian empire Great Britain - Seen as being the most powerful nation in Europe in 1914 - In control of the largest colonial empire o By 1900, ¼ of the world’s population was ruled by the British - First state to industrialize - All states hungry for more power - Great Britain doesn’t want anything o change because they’re on top France - True republic since 1870, legitimately democratic - Electoral system = proportional representation (minority coalition government) - Germans fought the French and took Alsace and Loraine (1871) - Dream of revenge against the Germans - Big lender of loans to Russia Russia - Far less politically involved than other states in Europe - Ruled by absolute monarch (Tsar Nicholas II) - Ruled by huge bureaucracy o Corrupt o Inefficient - Great European powers afraid of Russia o Because of size of Russia and size of population - Peasant economy - Way behind other states - Extreme economic backwardness Austria-Hungary - Russia’s sworn enemy - Old-style authoritarian monarchy - Ruled by emperor Franz Josef - Multi-ethnic empire - Unhappy population of Bosnians/Slovakians o They want to be independent - Austria Hungary wants to keep the empire unified Germany - Power exclusively in the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm II - Germans begin building a nave in hopes of having a huge global empire - Invested in industry - Large well-educated population - Germans have fixation that Germany is being isolated by the other states - Anxiety about socialist parties Building of Empires - Everyone races to conquer territories outside of Europe - Germany thinks seizing territory is the best way to gather power - Imperial division of Africa o Friction between European powers Conflict of Colonialism Pushed the Alliances Together - Tripe Entente: Great Britain, France, Russia - Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Europe is a continent thick with fear and suspicion 3 Lecture 3: Crisis in the Balkans - 28 June 1914: archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne get shot by an assassin o Spark that started WWI - Relations between the two power block of states in Europe were strained o Imperialism and the attempt to expand the bound of power  Africa completely occupied and taken by states of Europe - Arms race o If one wanted to be great and build a global empire, a bug powerful navy/army is needed o Size of navies and armies doubled in a short amount of time o Germany looking for its place in the sun - Germans began building ships at an alarming rate o British uneasy about growing strength of Germany o Faced challenge in preserving supremacy o British ready to do whatever it takes to stay on top o British create the Dreadnought in response to the naval race against Germany - Europe was a tense place before 1914, especially as Europe had divided itself into 2 rival alliances o Triple Entente - Great Britain, France, Russia o Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy - A lot of talk of war at the beginning of the 20th century o Fear of a war with Germany had filtered down into British consciousness o The Riddle of the Sands - fictional German invasion of Britain - Increasing posturing for war taking place in Britain - 1913: Count Helmuth von Moltke writes to Austrian counterpart o A European war is bound to occur sooner or later - Militarism was at its peak - Relationships between the states of Europe were very strained - Balkans = south eastern Europe - Turkey was the last hub of the Ottoman Empire o Ottoman Empire had been very large and the Ottomans had occupied the Balkan region o In the late 1870s, the Ottomans are pushed out of Southeastern Europe o Austria-Hungary, Russia and Serbia muscling each other to occupy the Balkan region  Serbia has a dream of uniting the Slavic population in Europe o Austro-Hungarians don't like the Serbians because they have a large Slavic population and they don't want to let go of it - 1908: Austro-Hungarians take over Bosnia so Serbia can't expand into Bosnia o Austro-Hungarians now have a lot of Slavic under their rule, and they don't want to be there o Bosnians thought they should be a part of Serbia because they spoke the same language/had the same culture o Bosnians want to break away o Austro-Hungarians scared that if Bosnians break away, all the other ethnic groups want to break way - Austria-Hungary had terrible relations with Serbians o Austro-Hungarians convinced the Serbians are egging on the Bosnians o Austro-Hungarians can't take over Serbia because of Russia so Austria-Hungary is pissed at Russia too - Terrorist group - The Black Hand o Want to destroy the authority of Austria Hungary o Want to break away from Austria-Hungary o Want to merge with Serbia or break away and create their own Slavic state - Little Bosnia o Hated Austro-Hungarian regime - June 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo o Perfect target for the rage of the terrorist groups o Ferdinand was a liberal minded conformer  Intended to institute liberal reforms  Wanted to give autonomy o Ferdinand was the Inspector General of the army, he was travelling in his military position, his wife Sophie was allowed to come along o Ferdinand planned to travel to Sarajevo to celebrate their anniversary - 28 June: the anniversary of the defeat of the Serbs by the Turks o National day for Serbs to think about their past o Still burying the burden of their imperial rule o Something tactless about Ferdinand coming to Sarajevo on that day  Flaunting imperial power - As they were driving through Sarajevo, they were attacked by Slavic nationalists o 6 assassins in total, 6 teenagers o Archduke going along the block, the 6 terrorists station themselves along the way hoping to get a clear shot o The first couldn't figure out how to get his gun out of his pocket 4 o The second got scared when a cop ended up beside him o The third didn't want to shoot the wife o The fourth just didn't want to o The fifth throws an explosive, hits the car behind the Archduke o The sixth (Gavrilo Princip), 19 year old Bosnian Serb  Thinks the bomb went off and they succeeded  He sees the Archduke go by, and thinks they lost their opportunity  Archduke's driver takes a wrong turn  Princip sees the Archduke coming back, shoots Ferdinand, attempts to shoot the governor, misses and shoots Sophie - Austria-Hungary PISSED about the assassination - Princip is an ethnic Serb - Austria-Hungary is convinced that Serbia must have been behind the assassination - Franz Joseph doesn't invite anyone from other states to Ferdinand's funeral o He doesn't want to come to a compromise with anyone o He wants to deal with Serbia but they're not strong enough to do it (because of Russia) o He turns to Germany - Wilhelm II convinced that Germany is being encircled o Last person to back down from a fight o In his best interest to keep Austria-Hungary strong o Bethmann-Hollweg responds to Austria with the Blank Cheque  We are giving you a cheque, we will support you - Von Moltke thinks war has to happen a.s.a.p. - 23 July 1914: Germans made demands to Serbia that were so severe that there was no way Serbia could accept and remain an independent state o Serbia accepts all but one o Austrians want to investigate the assassination, Serbia says hell no - Austria Hungary begins to mobilize their army - Germany's Russian allies announces that the troops aren’t mobilizing, but they're getting prepared - German's say Russians are going to take time, so Austria-Hungary should start and finish the affair before the Russians enter - First official declaration of war o Between Austria and Serbia o 28 July, Austria declares war on Serbia o First shots of war immediately follow (24 hours later) Wilhelm II - Withered left arm, source of insecurity for him his shoe life - Comes to the throne in 1888 - Thinks like old absolutist kings - Sees himself as leader of armies and empire - Loved uniforms - Germany was lucky that he was lazy - He thought his nation was in trouble o Social Democratic Party (SDP) was becoming more popular - He thought everything would be solved by following an aggressive foreign policy o Building a large army/navy o Creating a large colonial empire - The same day the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Tsar Nicholas partly mobilizes his troops against Austria-Hungary o Couldn’t do that, so the troops get fully mobilized against the Germans - Germans say halt your mobilization or else - Tsar Nicholas II and Wilhelm II are cousins - Germany declares war on Russia August 1, 1914 Schliefen Plan - Devised by old German chief of staff - Designed to prevent Germany from having to fight two states at once - If there is a war with Russia or France, they can quickly conquer France and head to Russia before Russia can get their troops together - France gets drawn into the war because the Germans have to defeat France first - German think Schliefen plan is the only way to victory - Germans declare war on France August 3 - Belgians have allied with the British o Germans have to cross through Belgium, Britain gets drawn into the war 5 Lecture 4: To the Western Front and the Marne “War Fever” in Europe, 1914 - The Power of Nationalism - “Home by Christmas”: Illusions of a Short War The Schlieffen Plan on Paper and in Practice - Belgian Neutrality and Great Britain War on the Western Front - Atrocities in Belgium and the “German Brute” - Von Moltke’s Great Mistake Great Battles in the West - The Battle of Mons and the Battle of the Marne - The Stalemate Begins Lecture 5: No End in Sight: To the Eastern Front, Ypres and Beyond 1 - Fighting the Two Front War o The German and Russian Armies - Germans want to go through Belgium to take France (Schlieffen Plan) - Belgium had a treaty with Great Britain guaranteeing their sovereignty and neutrality - Germans get through 25 miles to Paris, but get pushed back 75 miles - Trenches created - German army had a lot going for it  Very skilled general staff  Experimenting with new weapons  Exploring all the problems that they could face  Huge army filled with lots of enthusiastic nationalist recruits - Germany had an army of 800,000 soldiers in 1914  High standards, best weapons  First to grasp the potential of the machine gun - Germany had such a strong army because they stayed in the system for a very long time  Basically from 18 to 45 years of age - Germany is outnumbered 2:1 because hey have to fight the Russians AND the French/British - Germans get stuck in France, Russians take the opportunity to attack - Russia is under pressure to aid the Serbians - Russians face new pressure from France (they have an alliance)  Alliance with France is more important than alliance with Serbia - Tsar creates two separate armies that will fight two separate wars  Russians attack Germany from the east, compromising Germany's position, helping France  Second army comes to the aid of Serbia, attacking Austria-Hungary, taking the weight off Serbia  Attack eastern most province - Russians have 1.5M men in active duty (huge ass army)  Reflection of backwardness of Russian society  Peasant society = peasant army  Illiteracy  1/3 of Russia's army couldn't be supplied with rifles so they got oak clubs  They made a line behind the soldiers with guns and picked up guns when they were taken down - Huge amount of friction between everyday Russian soldiers and the elites who led them into battle 2 - The Russian Attack on Germany o The Fight for East Prussia - Russians mobilized more quickly than von Schlieffen had thought they would - Time was of the essence for Russia - They want to fight them when Germany wouldn't expect it - 15 August 1914, Russian Northern army backstabbed Germany  Rennenkampf's army attacked on the East in East Prussia  Samsonov's army attacked further to the south - Germany in trouble  They attack full frontal to the East (Rennenkampf)  Commander of the 8th army proposes massive retreat back to German territory, surrendering East Prussia to Russia 6  Kaiser says hell no o Hindenburg and Ludendorff to the Rescue! - First clear heroes of WWI - Hindenburg fought in the Franco-Prussian war - Comes out of retirement to aid the German army - Old war hero - stability/nobility - Ludendorff is Hindenburg's chief of staff - They can’t fight both armies at once, so they leave a single unit to wait for Rennenkampf's army - Turn all of their attention towards Samsonov's army o The Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes - 50,000 Russians killed and 90,000 taken prisoner - Hindenburg and Ludendorff presented this as one of the biggest vitro ties in history - Samsonov’s forces destroyed to the south - Move all of their forces to the east to meet Rennenkampf - September 13th, Russians have been totally repelled by the Germans - 70,000 Russians dead, 130,000 taken prisoner - Hindenburg and Ludendorff seen as heroes that saved Germany 3 - The Austro-Hungarian Campaigns o General Conrad and the war in Galicia and Serbia - Austro-Hungarians not up for fighting the Russian army - Lacked resources to have a large army - Standing army of 480,000 men - Proved incompetent of having military - You can't build a cohesive force out of minorities whoa re not loyal to the empire - They turn to Germany for help - Austrian chief of staff (Conrad) bombards von Moltke with memos saying you have to stop delaying and come to the Eastern front  Germans already fighting the war on 2 fronts, and not being asked to open up a third front  Von Moltke tells Conrad to sit tight - Austro-Hungarians wanted to crush Serbia since time, but the Russians are coming  Conrad decides to take his army and split it in 2  One side to deal with Serbians, the other to deal with the Russians - Advance on Serbia wasn't the cake walk he had expected  Serbian forces led by competent field marshall  They’re outnumbered, but Serbians repel the Austro-Hungarian advance, and push them back over their border  Austro-Hungarians regroup and attack, but they are pushed back again  By year's end, there was no winner  Austro-Hungarians lost 200,000 troops  Huge blow to Austro-Hungarian pride - Conrad's forces in Galicia outnumbered  Conrad decided to face the Russians on their own, without the help of the Germans  Completely outnumbered and outgunned because the army as divided in 2  Russians roll over the Austro-Hungarians  Conrad retreats back with 400,000 casualties - Germans help out the Austro-Hungarians but they're furious  Austro-Hungarians aren't a useful ally, but a liability 4 - The Western Front after the Schlieffen Plan o The Race to the Sea - Von Moltke fails with the Schlieffen plan - Replaced by von Falkenhayn  Says the war has got to be won before winter  Troops don't have equipment to see them through the winter - Von Falkenhayn tries to find spots where he can outflank the French and take Paris  They don't get through and eventually get further and further towards the North Sea o The First Battle of Ypres (October-November 1914) - 20th of October to 24th of November - Attempt for Germans to get through French and British troops - Ypres becomes a model for brutal fights on the Western front - Trench warfare - British take up main positron of line east of Ypres  Not a great position because German artillery is able to reach them but they can't reach the Germans by firing back  They hold the bulge to themselves and the French (under General Foch) 7 - A portion of the line held by Belgian forces  Von Falkenhayn thinks he can cross over and capture the ports  Belgian king order the opening of all of the floodgates  They create a 2 mile body of water between the Belgian forces and the Germans - Germans now turn to face the British (who are led by Haig)  Haig mounts a counter attack  Second phase of attack, a direct attack on Ypres  Von Falkenhayn has no luck breaking through the French and British  Brits and French have advantage that they can draw upon colonial forces - Von Falkenhayn decides to attack to the south - German forces pushed back the British ruthlessly in the attack to the South - Combine British, Canadian, Indian force saves the day  Counter attack ferociously and push the Germans back - Fighting stops 22nd of November because it starts to snow and both sides need to regroup - Very little was achieved, but so much was lost - British lose 58,000 men - French lose 50,000 - Germans lose 130,000 - Trenches span from north sea all the way to the Swiss border by the end of 1914  Settling into static trench warfare as last attempt to break through o The Christmas Truce and Film: Joyeux Noel - Immediate aftermath of Ypres - Solders on both sides entrenched all the way down Europe - Truce is around Ypres - Christmas eve 1914, a spontaneous truce breaks out between forces on both sides  Truce began when German soldiers received Christmas trees and decorated the parapets  By Christmas day, open frat between members of the trench  Soldiers on both sides start to throw gifts at each other  Meetings in no man's land Lecture 6: The Ottoman Empire, Gallipoli and the Armenian Genocide 1 - Trenches, Deadlock, and the Search for a New Front o Trenches - Trenches were a deathtrap - Mud knee-deep and sometimes waist-deep - Trench foot - Rat infestation - More frontline troops were evacuated from the frontline for trench foot than battle wounds  The first winter (1914) o An alternative to Flanders? - British decision to open up a new front of the war by attacking the Ottoman Empire 2 - The Ottoman Empire a War o The Crumbling Empire and the Central Powers - The Ottoman empire had been mighty, occupying Europe and middle east, Africa - Turks dreamed of a day when their empire would be great again - But they feared their empire being swept away - Sense that they need to join the war (the side that’s going to win) - October 1914, Turkey enters the war, jointing with the Central Powers  They felt that they needed a protector that would defend the crumbling Ottoman Empire from those who wanted to see it collapse (Britain/France)  Turned to Germans as an ally - Turks in perfect position to put Russian in a two front war - Capital of Ottoman Empire (Constantinople) the same as capital of Turkey (Istanbul) - When Turks joined the war, they used the 2 German ships to shell the German black seaport of Odessa (?) 3 - The Gallipoli Offensive o The Dardanelle Straights and the Route to Russia - Dardanelle Straights the only way for the Entente to get to Russia - Turks control the straights and they're at war with Russia - Entente use this as a reason to invade Turkey - Ottomans started t launch attacks against Russia - Russians asking French and Brits for help 8 - Turks lost 80,000 men in process of fighting Russians - Russian commander appeals to allies, saying we need help - Discussion begins in Britain about opening up a new from for war - Plan is to win over the straights to open up a supply line to Russia o Winston Churchill and the Naval Attack - Plan was to launch a naval blockade and claim the Gallipoli Peninsula, control Turkey and get to Russia - British began planning the campaign  Racist premise  Fundamental and inherent superiority of the European man over the Asiatic - Campaign wasn't taken with extra resources because it was just a racist plan - Entente planners had no idea how many Turkish troops there were - Turks were scared for this kind of campaign  They amassed 350,000 troops to prepare for the attack - At the widest, the straights were 4 miles wide, with huge cliffs  Perfect defensive position for Turks  Turks positioned mines in the straights - Entente would be facing offence from all sides - Feb 1915, the attack begins  Went well at first  Lines of gun on the trips quickly taken out/destroyed  There was a second line of defenses that was targeting the minesweeping ships  Carden said they needed to land troops on land, Churchill says NOPE, got to be a naval mission  A month later, a new commander (de Robeck) tries to push up the ships  Pretty disastrous, a bunch of ships sink  British wires discovered that Turks were low on ammunition  Things don't turn around for Entente  De Robeck says we have to land ground forces - A new capping begins in April 1915  Land invasion  Crippled campaign  Turks had a month to prepare for the land invasion  Land invasion disastrous too o ANZAC forces and Death on the Beaches - ANZAC = Australian and New Zealand forces - They were supposed to land at the narrowest point of the Peninsula - Landed instead at 1 mile north of where they supposed to be - Landed on a tiny piece of beach with he cliffs which are well defended by Turks - Campaign was totally brutal - Further down the peninsula, more troops are being landed to start pushing up the peninsula  The first wave of men, only 12 out of 200 succeeded o Ataturk and the Ottoman Victory - May/June/July, the French/British barely moved along - Turks rigorously defended Gallipoli - The new front ends up just like the western front - All the battle of Gallipoli did was send more men to die - All allied troops were evacuated from Gallipoli in December 1915 - 110,000 more cumulative casualties (Turk and Entente) - Gallipoli victory moment of major pride for Turks - Led to a revolution that made Ataturk the leader of the modern Turkish state - Gallipoli fed and sped the Turkish campaign to murder one of its largest minority groups (Armenians) 4 - A Quick Introduction to the Armenian Genocide o The "Young Turks" and Nationalism in the Empire - Arab nationalists who wanted to break way from turkey - Armenian Christians wanted independence - 1908: revolution in the ottoman empire - Led by a group of young reformers who goal is to force the sultan to stop ruling with absolute powers and instead modernize/democratize and make Turkey a secular state - Armenian minority saw the rise of the young Turks as a good things  1913: coup d'état brings the most radical of the radicals to power  Essentially a dictatorship is set up  Radical nationalism embraced  Dream of making turkey great again  Ethnic purity/homogeneity - Armenians were only safe until the war started 9  Young Turks had an excuse to rid themselves of the Armenian minority  They though Armenians would try and break away  Given that the Russians and Armenians are non chitosan, so they must be dreaming of gaining independence with the assistance of the Russians  Turks begin rounding up Armenians  Extermination orders were transmitted  April 1915: Armenians were taken form homes, briefly jailed and then shot  Marched Armenians to Syrian desert, 75% of Armenians would die in this march  The survivors were beaten, tortured, shot Lecture 7: 1915 and the New Technologies of Death - 1915 was a very bad year for the Entente - Things weren't over by Christmas and there was no end in sight - Fighting in 1915 became endlessly bloody - British army had lost 300,000 soldiers, Germans lost more that 600,000, French lost 1.3M 1 - The Second Battle of Ypres (April 1915) - Only major German offensive launched on the Western front in 1915 - Germans had been seeing success on the Eastern Front but not in the West - They tried to take troops out of the West and take them to the East to fight the Russians - Launched the offensive to prove they're still a strong nation despite taking troops out - Germans fail miserably o The Terrible Death of Poison Gas - French had previously tried to use tear gas, but it wasn't major because it didn't work - Germans attempt to use poison gas in January 1915 - Fire poison gas to the Germans - Wasn’t as prestigious a debut as they had hoped for - 22nd April 1915, Germans began attack with a heavy bombardment, but German lines fell silent at noon - At 5PM, bombardment begins all over again, but French sentries on tops of trenches noticed cloud of gas moving towards them - French think Germans have fired something to block vision (smokescreen) - French order men to go into the cloud, they thought it was an attack - Gas was chlorine gas, used for the first time in battle - Soldiers begin to choke, gas begins to kill them form the inside - Germans didn't realize how well the gas attack would go - French troops flee backwards - French give up 4 miles of territory, and a while in the line develops - Germans are not prepared to take advantage of the gained land and gap in French line - Germans didn't have reinforcements because they hadn't anticipated the breach in land - Entente troops could regroup and bring in more troops o Canadian Forces and a Temporary Cure - 6000 Canadians dead at Ypres - Canadians were the first ones to figure out how to deal with poison gas - Canadian pharmacist on medical staff realizes the gas is chlorine and tells soldiers to pee on handkerchiefs and put them on their face, stopping the gas from killing them - Entente powers were able to hold the lines and Germans were under equipped to take advantage - Entente lost 70,000 troops, Germans lost 130,000 troops 2 - New Weapons of War o Chlorine, Phosgene and Mustard Gas - Phosgene fired in shells to the trenches - Mustard gas remained potent in the trenches for up to a week after it was fired - When troops tried to take advantage of the other sides troops by taking them out with mustard gas, but when they took over the trenches, they were also exposed to the mustard gas o The Machine Gun and the Origins of Stalemate - Machine guns were a primitive weapon when the war began - They jammed all the time - They needed to be cooled on the battlefield - British commander, Douglas Haig, did not see the use for machine guns - It was easy to hold your position if you had machine guns - Imbalance with the technology of defensive and offensive - All they could do on the offence was run at the other side with their rifles and hope they didn't get shot 10 o The Tank and the Attempt to Break Out - In 1899, British had been approached with a design for a armoured vehicle - Seen as impractical, not anticipating trench warfare - In 1914, when stalemate sets in, they think the tank is the solution - Display is put on to see what a tank could do - Winston Churchill puts together a committee to develop "land ships" - Weighed 14 tons, went at 3 miles an hour - Not a grand beginning, but its appearance stunned the Germans - They proved to be effective in pushing through barbed wire - They are developed, they become more reliable o The Minenwerfer and the Flamethrower - Germans weren't into the tank, but they liked big explosions - They developed a large mortar shell that they shot through a Minenwerfer (mine thrower) - Flamethrower literally shot spewing flames of gasoline across to enemy trenches 3 - The Battle of Loos (September 1915) o The British Use of Poison Gas: Learning its Perils - Begins 25th of September, they release 150,000 tons of chlorine gas across to enemy lines - Plan was t take the German trench when they'd been killed by the gas - Wind shifted, the gas blew back to the British trenches - More British died from the gas that the Germans did The Horrors of Verdun and the Somme 1 - New Developments to the South and East o Italy Enters the War, May 23, 1915 o Von Falkenhayn's Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive, 1915 2 - The Battle of Verdun and the War of Attrition o "Bleeding the French White"? 3 - The Battle of the Somme o General Douglas Haig and Hope for a Breakthrough o New Recruits in the Trenches o The Debut of the Tank o Taking Stock of the Great Slaughter Lecture 8: Fighting the War on the Home Fronts 1 - The Demands of Total War o The Unquenchable Thirst of Modern Conflict - In 1916, German army had 5.5 million men - Immense investment in the war began to reshape Europe fundamentally - Total war required  Political centralization and the extension of government power  Economic regimentation and alternate sources of labour  The active support of the population, to be manipulated and enhanced through censorship and propaganda - A state can only build up their army to a certain degree - Britain had never forced people to fight (conscription)  Realized it wasn't feasible not to have a draft because they had to keep up with the size of other armies  Introduce universal conscription in 1916 2 - The Creation of War Industry o Private Enterprise and Profiteering - Industrialists thought war was great  Demand for products going up  Increased prices because of high demand - Government at the mercy of private enterprises - Workers furious because they worked long hours for low wages but industrialists made shit tons of money - If you tell the industries they can't make a profit, they lose incentive to be efficient  Britain introduces an excess profit tax - Workers get threatened, "you need to work for the war effort or else" 11 o State Control, Labour Shortages and Unions - The state tells people what they can and can't produce  You must produce products that help the war effort - Production has to be made more efficient  Production line > assembly line  Standardization of labour  Electrification in factories - Some states drafted people into industries  Everyone’s efforts have to be funneled to the war - Germans forced conquered Belgian state to provide 20,000 workers a week to work in German factories  This didn't work well  People who don't want to produce because they're on the other side don't produce well o Women in the Factories - Women able to take over jobs that were previously only fit for men to do - Women began to fill in gaps that had been created - Some French guy (Joff?) said France would lose the war if women stopped working for 20 minutes - 1.5 million war drafted into industry in Britain  Proving their value as citizens 3 - The Naval War, Blockades and Shortages - British blockade of Germany to the North Sea  Blockading a modern state was really different  A modern state doesn't use all of land and people to raise food, they impor
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