Behavioral Aspects of Job Design:
Job Enlargement (Horizontal loading) involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility
to increase the number of tasks they have to perform
o Reduce fatigue by expanding the job cycle
Job Rotation Systematically moving employees from one job to another. Workers experience: task variety, motivation,
and productivity. The best way to motivate workers is to create challenges.
Job Enrichment Any effort that makes an employees job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful
o By increasing level of difficulty, assigning more authority and control to workers, adding new tasks.
Team Based Job Designs: Outgrowth of job enrichment and the job characteristics model has resulted in team based job
o Team based job design Giving a team a meaningful peace of work and to empower team members to decide
among themselves how to compete the tasks.
Ergonomic Aspects of Job Design: Seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of
jobs. Aims to adapt the: entire job system and to minimize negative physiological effects of all workers.
Increasing Job Flexibility: A job is a set of well-defined and clearly stated responsibilities. Companies are dealing with
challenges such as: rapid product and technological change, global competition, and political instability. Work has become more
complex, team based, and collaborative.
The Nature of Job Analysis:
Job analysis is the procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job and the human attributes
that are needed to perform it.
Uses of Job Analysis Info:
Human Resources Planning: Knowing the actual requirements of jobs is essential
Recruitment & Selection: The job description and job specification information that should be used to decide who to hire
(advertising and screening should be done based on this).
Compensation: Knowing the job analysis information and appropriate compensation for the job. Job evaluation should be
completed according to: required skills, physical/mental demands, job duties are necessary to know when to pay overtime
Performance Appraisal To be legally defendable, the criteria that is used to assess employee performance must be directly
related to the duties and responsibilities (Routine tasks Performance standards are determined through job analysis).
Labor Relations Job descriptions need union approval before being finalized. Job descriptions are based upon the duties
which determine the appropriate wage.
Training, development, and career management By comparing the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that employees
bring are identified by job analysis; managers are able to determine training requirements.
Job Design Job analysis ensures that all duties have been assigned. It increases productivity.
Steps in Job Analysis Six Steps:
Step One Identify the use of the information It will identify the types of data that should be collected. (Data Collection
Techniques interviewing, employee and asking what the job entails is a good reference on how to write the analysis.
Step Two Review background information (organization charts, process charts, and existing job descriptions). A process chart
shows the flow of inputs to outputs from the job.
Step Three Select representative positions and jobs to be analyzed. This selection is helpful when there are many occupants in
a single job or when a number of similar jobs are being analyzed. Step Four Analyze the jobs by collecting data on job activities (working conditions, human traits and abilities that are needed
to perform the job)
Step Five Review information with occupants. Job analysis information should be verified with any workers performing the
Step Six Develop a job description and specification which are two concrete products of the job analysis
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Info:
Information is usually used for developing recruitment criteria, compensation decisions
Job analysis data involves effort by an HR specialist, the occupant, and the supervisor
Qualitative Job Analysis Techniques:
The Interview Most widely used method to determine duties and responsibilities. The three types of interviews: individual,
group, and supervisory. (Group interviews usually work when a large number of employees are performing similar work quick
Interview guidelines: Job Analyst and supervisor should work together to identify who knows the job best, Agreement
should be established by using the interviewees name, A structured guide that lists questions/ using a form establishes
that crucial questions will be answered, an occupant should list their responsibilities in level of importance, interviewee
and supervisor should review data.
Questionnaires Employees should fill questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities
Observation Direct observation is useful when jobs concern observable physical activities (Janitors, Assembly line workers)
Participant Diary Log Asking employees to keep a log of what they do during a day. (employee may exaggerate)
Quantitative: Mainly used for job purposes that involves wage comparison.
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) A structured job analysis PAQ contains 194 item. The advantage is that it provides a
score on six basic dimensions: information input, mental processes, work output (physical activities), relationship with others,
job context and other job characteristics/ The PAQ classifies jobs.
Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Rates the job on responsibilities for data, people and things from simple to complex. This
technique also provides training requirements. National Occupational Classification (NOC) is a reference tool for writing job
descriptions and job specifications. Compiled by the federal government, it contains at least 30,000 job descriptions. Two key
dimensions: skill level and skill type.
Internet based job analysis Using surveys online and collection info online is easier and cheaper
Multiple Sources Using on approach isnt smart because each has drawbacks
Writing Job Descriptions and Job Specifications:
Job Descriptions: A list of the duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, and working conditions of a job one product
of a job analysis. It is a written description. Job descriptions consist of: job identification, job summary, relationships, duties and
responsibilities, authority of occupants, performance standards, and working conditions.
Job Identification The position title is evident, and the department and location is indicated. In some cases the
supervisor for that job is indicated.
Job Summary Usually describes the general nature of the job, listing its major functions or activities. An example:
purchase economically, regulate deliveries, store and distribute all materials necessary.
Relationships Indicates the jobholders relationships with others insides and outside of the organizations.
Duties and Responsibilities A detailed list of the jobs major duties and responsibilities. Each of the jobs major duties
should be listed separately and described in a few sentences.
Authority Defines the limits of the jobholders authority. For example: decision making, direct supervision of other
employees, and budgetary limitations. Performance Standards/ Indicators Indicates the standards the employee is expected to achieve in their main duties.
Statements such as: I will completely be satisfied when you complete this task like this.
Working Conditions and Physical Environment The general working conditions should be listed. For example: noise
level, temperature, lighting, degree of privacy, and hours of work.
Job descriptions and Human Rights Legislation Requires employers to ensure that theres no discrimination. A few
key points: Job descriptions are highly advisable, and Job duties should be identified.
Job Specifications: A list of the human requirements such as knowledge, skills, and abilities, needed to perform the job
another product of a job analysis. A few pointers to keep in mind: All qualifications are bona fide occupational requirements
based on the current job duties and responsibilities, and unjustifiable requirements based on education are a form of
discrimination. For entry level jobs identifying the physical and mental demands is critical. For example: a physical demands
analysis identifies the senses used and the type, frequency, and amount of physical effort involved.
Competency-based Job Analysis: Companies need employees who are flexible to different tasks and duties, therefore job
analyses may not benefit companies. Competency-based job analysis means writing job descriptions based on competencies
rather than job duties. It emphasizes what the employee must be capable of doing.
Competencies Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of the job.
Competency-based job analysis Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable behavioral competencies
an employee must exhibit to do a job well.
What are three reasons to use competency analysis?
Traditional job descriptions may backfire if a high performance work system is a companys goal. If a list of duties is
given and the company needs additional help, an employ