ITM 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Unified Communications, Business Process Management, Gantt Chart

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Chapter 1
Information System- a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store and dit.
Information to support decision making and control in an organization
Complementary Assets- assets required to gather value from a primary investment
Information Systems and Transforming Business- increase use of web sites, sifts in media and
ads, new laws
Internet has drastically reduced costs of operating on global scale
Strategic Business Objectives of IS- operational excellence, new products/services/business
models, customer/supplier intimacy, improved decision making, competitive advantage and
Information System: Input, Processing, Output and Feedback
Chapter 2
IT enhances business processes- increases efficiency of existing processes and enables new
processes that can transform the business
Business Processes: Sales and Marketing systems/Manufacturing and Production systems/
Finance and Accounting systems/Human Resource systems
Transactions Processing Systems- perform and record daily routine transactions
Management Information Systems- provide reports on firms current performance
Decision Support Systems- use external information from TPS(Transaction Processing System)
and MIS(Management Information Systems)
Executive Support Systems- address non routine decisions requiring judgement, evaluation and
Enterprise Systems- Coordination of daily activities, efficient response to customer orders and
provide valuable info for improving management decision making
Supply Chain Management (SCM)- manage firms relationships with supplier, right amount of
export with least amount of time and lowest cost.
Customer Relationship Management- provide info with customers in sales, marketing, and
service to optimize revenue, customer satisfaction, and customer retention
Knowledge Management- processes for acquiring, creating, storing, distributing, applying,
integrating knowledge
Intranets- internal networks built with same tools and standards as internet, internal dist. of
information to employees.
Extranets- intranets extended to authorized users outside the company, can be used to allow diff.
Firms to collaborate on a product
Collaboration and Communication Systems- Email/Cell Phones/Social Networking/Wikis
E-Business (Electronic Business)- Use of digital technology and internet to execute major
business processes, e-commerce (buying and selling goods over the internet)
E-Gov’t- internet and networking technologies to digitally enable gov’t and public sector
Chapter 3
Organization- formal social structure that takes resources to produce outputs
Routines and Business Processes- standard operating procedures, collection of routines and
collection of business processes
Organizational politics- diff. Viewpoints lead to political struggle, competition and conflict,
organizational change is greatly based on political resistance
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Organizational Environments- dependant on the social and physical environment, can
influence environments
First Movers- inventors of disruptive technologies
Fast Followers- firms with the size and resources to capitalize on that technology
IS: Economic Impact- IT changes cost of capital and the costs of information, IS technology is
a factor of production like capital and labour,
Transaction cost theory- economize on cost of participating in market, IT lowers cost therefore
firms are better off transacting with other firms rather than grow company with number of
Agency Theory- IT can reduce the cost of managing and supervising in a firm
IT flattens organizations- IT enables faster decision making and increases span of control
Internet and organizations- increases the accessibility, storage and distribution of info and
knowledge for organizations/ lowers transaction and agency costs
Competitive Forces Model- Traditional competitors/New Market Entrants/Substitute products
and services/Customers/Suppliers
Low Cost Leadership- low cost for producing products with better quality and level of service
Product Differentiation- greatly change customers convenience and experience
Focus on Market Niche- use IS to enable a focused strategy on a single market niche
Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy- use IS to develop strong ties and loyalty with
customers and suppliers
Business value chain model- highlights activities where competitive strategies can be best
applied, Is can improve operational efficiency and improve customer and supplier intimacy
Synergies- output of some units used as inputs to other
Core competencies- activity for which firm is world class leader, relies on knowledge,
experience and sharing this across business units
Virtual company strategy- use of network to ally with other companies to create and distribute
products without limits
Business Ecosystems- sets of firms providing related services and products
Keystone firms- dominate ecosystem and create platform used by other firms
Niche firms- Rely on the products by keystone firms
Chapter 4
Ethics- Principles of right and wrong that individuals use to make choices to guide their
Responsibility- accepting the potential costs, duties and obligations for decisions
Accountability- Mechanisms for identifying responsible parties
Liability- Permits individuals to recover damages done to them
Due Process- Laws are well known and understood with an ability to appeal to higher authorities
Ethical Principles:
Golden Rule- Do unto other as you would have them do unto you
Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative- If an action is not right for everyone to take, then it is
not right for anyone
Descartes’ rules of change- IF an action cannot be taken repeatedly then it is not right to be taken
at any time
Utilitarian Principle- Take the action that achieves the greatest value for all concerned
Risk Aversion Principle- Take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost to
all concerned
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Ethical “no free lunch” rule- Assume that all tangible and intangible objects are owned by
someone else
Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA)- establishes
principles for collection, use and disclosure of personal information
Internet Challenges to Privacy- cookies are used to collect info from web site visits, web bugs
and spy ware can be installed secretly
Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P)- Automatic communication of privacy policies
between an e-commerce site and its visitors
Trade Secret- intellectual work or product belonging to business
Copyright- Statutory grant protecting intellectual property from being copied for at least 50
Patent- granting the inventor an exclusive monopoly on idead behind an invention for between
17- 20 years
Chapter 5
IT Infrastructure- Shared technology resources and specific information system applications
Moore’s law and microprocessing power- the power of microprocessors and computing power
doubles every 18 months, the price however falls by half every 18 months
Law of Mass Digital Storage- the amount of digital information is roughly doubling every year,
the cost of storing is exponentially falling
Metcalfe’s Law and Network Economics- the value of networks exponentially grows as a
function of the number of network members
Computer Hardware Platforms- Client Machines, Server Machines, and mainframe systems
Operating System Platforms- Unix or Linux widely used as server software, Microsoft
dominates as operating system
Enterprise Software Applications- Largest supplier of enterprise software are SAP, Oracle and
Data Management and Storage- Database software (IBM,Oracle, Microsoft, Sybase and
MySQL) Physical data Storage (EMC Corp, Seagate, Maxtor and Western Digital) Storage area
networks (SANs)
Networking/Telecommunications Platforms- Leadinf network hardware providers are Cisco,
Lucent, Nortel an Juniper, Software leaders are Microsoft, Novell, Linux and Unix, Service
Vendors include Bell Canada, Primus and regional carriers
Software Integration- ensuring new infrastructure works with legacy systems
Legacy Systems- older TPS (Transaction Processing System) created for mainframes that would
be costly to replace
Virtualization- presents computing resources so that they can be accessed in ways that are not
restricted by configuration
Multicore processors- reduced power requirements, enhanced performance
XML- Extensible Markup Language
SOAP- Simple Object Access Protocol
WSDL- Web Services Description Language
UDDI- Universal Description Discovery and Integration
Mashups- Combination of two or more online applications
Widgets- small programs that can be added to Web pages as well as the desktop
Scalability- ability to expand to serve larger number of users
TCO (Total Cost of Ownership)- Used to analyze direct and indirect costs of systems
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