# ITM 207 Study Guide - Final Guide: The Item, Operand, Insertion Sort

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Ryerson University
Department
Information Technology Management
Course
ITM 207
Professor
Chapter 7 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes
Problem Solving and Algorithms
Chapter 7
Problem Solving:
The act of finding a solution to a perplexing, distressing, vexing, or unsettled
question.
How to Solve It: A new Aspect of Mathematical Method by George Polya
“How to solve it list” written within the context of mathematical
problems.
How do you solve problems?
- Understand the problem
- Devise a plan
- Carry out the plan
- Look back
Strategies:
o What do I know about the problem?
o What is the information I have to process in order to find the solution?
o What does the solution look like?
- Similar problems come up again and again
- A good programmer recognizes problems that have been solved before and
uses past solutions
- Divide and Conquer
o Break up a large problem into smaller units and solve each smaller
problem
Applies the concept of abstraction
The divide-and-conquer approach can be applied over and
over again until subtask is manageable
Computer Enabled Problem Solving:
- Analysis and Specification Phase
o Analyze
o Specification
- Algorithm Development Phase
o Develop Algorithm
o Test Algorithm
- Implementation Phase
o Code algorithm
o Test Algorithm
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Chapter 7 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes
- Maintenance Phase
o Use
o Maintain
Phase Interactions:
Algorithms:
A set of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem or sub-problem in a
finite amount of time using a finite amount of data.
Abstract Step:
An algorithmic step containing unspecified details.
Concrete Step:
An algorithmic step in which all details are specified.
Developing an Algorithm:
Two methods to develop computer solutions to a problem:
o Top-down design focuses on the tasks to be done
o Object-oriented design focuses on the data involved in the solution.
Summary of Methodology:
- Analyze the problem
o Understand the problem
Another
arrow can be
problem is
later revised
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Chapter 7 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes
o Develop a plan of attack
- List the Main Tasks (becomes main module)
o Restate problem as a list of tasks (modules)
o Give each task a name
- Write the remaining Modules
o Restate each abstract module as a list of tasks
o Give each task a name
- Re-sequence and revise as necessary
o Process ends when all steps (modules) are concrete
Top-Down Design:
Control Structures:
An instruction that determines the order in which other instructions in a
program are executed.
Selection Statements:
Process continues
for as many levels
as it takes to
make every step
concrete
Name of the (sub)
problem at one
level becomes a
module at next
lower level
Flow of
control if
statement
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## Document Summary

The act of finding a solution to a perplexing, distressing, vexing, or unsettled question. How to solve it: a new aspect of mathematical method by george polya. How to solve it list written within the context of mathematical problems. Similar problems come up again and again. A good programmer recognizes problems that have been solved before and uses past solutions. Divide and conquer: break up a large problem into smaller units and solve each smaller problem. The divide-and-conquer approach can be applied over and over again until subtask is manageable. Analysis and specification phase: analyze, specification. Algorithm development phase: develop algorithm, test algorithm. Another arrow can be added if the problem is later revised. A set of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem or sub-problem in a finite amount of time using a finite amount of data. An algorithmic step in which all details are specified.