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MHR 523 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cognitive Dissonance, Performance Appraisal, Job Performance

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 523
Study Guide

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Become a Learning Organization
Learning Organization
- an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its behavior to
reflect new knowledge and insights
- a long-term, continuous socialization process in which employee and employer expectations or obligations
are considered
- a short-term, discrete efforts in which organizations impart information and instructions in an effort to help
the recipient gain the required skills or knowledge to perform the job at adequate levels
Onboarding and Orientation of New Employees
Employee Onboarding (Orientation)
- procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about
o the organization
o the job
Purpose of Onboarding
- part of ongoing socialization process
- helps reduce first day jitters and reality shock
- foundation for ongoing performance management
- improved productivity
- improved retention levels and reduced recruitment costs
- the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of
behavior that are expected by the organization
- helps clarify the organization’s expectations of an employee regarding his / her job, thus helping to reduce
the new employee’s first-day jitters and reality shock (cognitive dissonance)
- discrepancy between what the new employee expected from his or her new job and its realities
- content of orientation programs
o internal publications (handbooks, newsletters, company history)
o facility tour and staff introductions
o job-related documents and explanation of duties, responsibilities
o expected training to be received
o performance appraisal criteria
- responsibility for orientation
o HR specialist explains corporate information, follows up over time
o supervisor explains nature of job, introduction of colleagues etc.
o buddy / mentor assist with day-to-day items
- executive integration
o identify position specifications
o provide realistic information to candidates
o assess candidate’s previous success with integration
o announce hiring with enthusiasm
o stress importance of listening and demonstrating competency
o assist new executives with cultural norms and change
- problem with orientation programs
o too much information in a short-time can overwhelm employee
o too many forms to fill out
o little to no orientation provided
o HR information can be too broad supervisor’s information can be too detailed

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- evaluation of orientation programs
o employee reaction evaluate usefulness, job performance
o social effects assess progress towards understanding norms
o cost/benefit analysis compare costs of grogram (materials, time etc.) to benefits (fewer errors,
rate of productivity)
- the process of teaching employees the basic skills / competencies that they need to perform their jobs
- part of organization’s strategic plan
- considered investment in human capital
- long-term preparation for future jobs
Necessity of Training
- a recent federal government report concluded that Canada’s ability to remain globally competitive and
manage technological change effectively is highly contingent on our ability to upgrade and renew the skills
of our labor force
- increased training can strengthen employee commitment
Training and Learning
- training is essentially a learning process
- three main learning styles
o auditory learning though talking and listening
o visual learning through picture and print
o kinesthetic tactile learning through a whole-body experience
- training effectiveness can be enhanced by identifying learning styles and personalizing the training
Legal Aspects of Training
- ensure admissions procedures are valid
- training not unfairly discriminatory
- negligent training when an employer fails to adequately train an employee who subsequently harms a
third party
Five Step Training Process
Step 1 Training Needs Analysis
- task analysis (new employees)
o break down job into tasks and skills
o determine where each task and skill is best learned
- performance analysis (current employees)
o verify any performance deficiencies and determine whether they are best resolved through training
or other means
- establish training objectives
o specify what the trainee should be able to accomplish after completing the training
o provide focus for trainee and trainer
o provide a benchmark for evaluation for the training program
Step 2 Instructional Design
- prepare curriculum
- ensure that training materials support learning objectives
- ensure the quality and effectiveness of program elements
- traditional training techniques
o on-the-job training
o apprenticeship training
o informal learning

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o job instruction training
o classroom training
o audiovisual learning
o programmed learning
o vestibule or stimulated training
- e-learning
o learning administered via computer, web-based technology
o flexible, personalized and cost effective
o types
computer based training (CBT)
online training
electronic performance support systems (EPSS)
Step 3 Validation
- often overlooked step
- ensures that objectives are accomplished
- pilot study or run-through using representative audience
- collect feedback and assess participants
- make revisions based on results
Step 4 Implementation
- roll out schedule delivery by professional trainers
- train-the-trainer workshops may be required
- ensure trainers are familiar with content and presentation methods
Step 5 Evaluation of Training
- reaction were trainees satisfied?
- learning did trainees learn what was intended?
- behavior was training transferred to the job?
- results did training deliver intended results in the organization?
Strategic Importance of Performance Management
Performance Management goal setting, pay performance, training and development, career management, and
disciplinary action
Performance Management Process
Step 1 Defining Performance Expectations
- task performance direct contribution to job-related processes
- contextual performance indirect contribution to the organization’s social responsibility values
- legal considerations correlate performance expectations to job activities
Step 2 Providing Ongoing Coaching and Feedback
- important to have open two-way communication
- employee responsible for monitoring own performance and asking for help
- manager responsible for communicating changing strategies and objectives if applicable
Step 3 Conduct Performance Appraisal and Evaluation Discussion
- graphic rating scale scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each. the employee
is given a rating that best describes the level of performance for each trait
- alternation ranking
- paired comparison for each trait list all possible pairs of employees, for each pair indicate + for the
higher ranked employee and for the lower ranked employee. then rank employees by trait based on
number of + scores
- forced distribution. predetermined percentages of rates are places in various performance categories
- critical incident
- narrative forms
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