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TT1 Study Guide Terminology.docx

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Ryerson University
MUS 101
Gillian Turnbull

Study Guide - Terminology Midterm Test, Music 101 - Organology – The Study and classification of musical instruments. - Sachs-Hornbostel System – A classification of musical instruments, named after the scholars who developed the system. Four categories: chordophone, aerophone, idiophone, and membranophone. - Idiophone – self-sounding; the body and/or construction of the instrument produces its sound. Example: bell gongs, triangle, rattle. - Chordophone – the sound of the instrument is produced by vibrating strings stretched across a resonator. Can be plucked or bowed. Four categories: lute, harp, lyre, zither. Example: violin, viola, cello, bass, harp, koto, Kenyan lyre. - Aerophone – instruments that sound by means of vibrating air; with an opening or mouthpiece, through which the player blows air. Divided into trumpets, pipes, and free aerophones. Can be transverse or endblown. Example: clarinet, oboe, bassoon, flute, shakuhachi. - Membranophone – an instrument whose sound is produced by a stretched membrane across an opening. Categorized by shape, material, number or heads, how skins are fastened, playing position, and manner of playing. Example: bodhran, congas, drum kit. - Electrophone – added in the mid-twentieth century. Instruments that produce sound using electricity such as synthesizer or electric guitar (overlaps with other categories). Example: electric guitar, synthesizer. - Chord – a group of notes played together. May sound pleasant or unpleasant, played either “broken” or “solid.” - Major – notes played together that have a “happy” sound. Example: notes CEG played together. - Minor – the second note is “flattened”, making it sound sad or melancholy. Example: notes CEb(E flat)G played together. - Consonance – sounding smooth together. - Dissonance – sounding rough together. - Crescendo – a gradual increase in volume over time. - Diminuendo – a gradual decrease in volume over time. Example: terraced dynamics is when there is an immediate change in dynamics that moves several levels and does not change gradually. - Dynamics – the perceived loudness or softness of a sound. Pianissimo (pp) – very quiet, Piano (p) – quiet, Mezzo Piano (mp) – medium quiet, Mezzo Forte (mf) – medium loud, Forte (f) – loud, Fortissimo (ff) – very loud. - Gamelan – Large Indonesian ensemble consisting mainly of metallophones. Large gongs act as timekeepers, while smaller keyed instruments and gongs keep the beat or play melodies. Skin- headed drums contribute to maintaining the beat as do wooden percussion instruments. Smaller instruments, including the rebab (a fiddle_ and the suling (a flute) play melodies and ornament existing melodies further. Example: gongs, skin-headed drums, a fiddle, a flute; used 1 for shadow puppet plays, weddings, funerals, celebrations, entertainment, dance competitions, and festivals. - Mbira – African instrument made of a small wooden box or gourd with thin metal strips attached. Example: “Mandarendare” (“A Place Full of Energy”) - Meter – a repeating pattern of strong and weak beats or pulses. This repeating pattern occupies one bar or measure of music. Is identified with a time s
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