NSE 12A/B- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 24 pages long!)

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29 Mar 2018
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Ryerson
NSE 12A/B
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Required Readings/Activities:
1. P & P p. 259; 1301-1323
2. A & B p. 117-123 (working with language barriers & different cultures), 333-344, 368-370
Learning Objectives Week 6
1. Differentiate among the three components of any sensory experience:
a. reception
b. perception
c. reaction
2. Discuss the relationship of sensory function to an individual’s level of wellness.
3. Describe common causes and effects of sensory alterations.
4. Discuss common sensory changes that occur with aging.
5. Identify and describe the factors affecting sensory function.
6. Describe therapeutic interventions for preventing sensory deprivation and controlling sensory overload.
7. Discuss ways to maintain a safe environment for patients with sensory deficits.
8. Identify common types of communication deficits
9. Describe strategies for caring for and communicating with clients experiencing communication deficits related to:
a. visual and auditory deficits
b. impaired verbal communication secondary to speech and language deficits, (e.g., aphasia)
c. impaired cognition
d. stimuli-related or treatment related communication disabilities.
e. limited language proficiency
f. culturally diverse clients
10. Describe adaptive communication strategies for age related hearing and vision loss
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Learning Objectives Week 7:
At the end of this week the student will be able to:
Bianca
1. Apply infection control principles in accordance with the standards set by the CNO.
2. Explain the relationship between the chain of infection and the transmission of infection:
a. Identify and describe each link in the chain of infection.
b. Give an example of a strategy to prevent infection for each of the elements of the chain of
infection.
c. Describe routine practices and the circumstances in which they apply.
d. What are the three categories of additional precautions? Describe the circumstances in which
each applies and identify the barrier protection required for each category.
e. What is the rationale for Mask Fit testing?
f. What psychological effects might a person on isolation precautions experience, and how might
you prevent these?
3. Explain how the body protects itself against infection: (P&P, p.622-623)
Immune response = protective rxn that neutralizes pathogens + repairs body cells.
a. Describe the role of normal flora as a defense against infection.
Normal flora (NF) = microorganisms (MOs) that reside on surface + in deep layers of skin, in
saliva + oral mucosa, in GI + genitourinary tracts.
The skin also has a large population of resident flora - NF which do not typically cause disease
when residing in their usual area + participate in maintaining health.
Large # of NF in large intestine (LI): secrete anti-bacterial substances w/in intestine walls.
Skin’s NF provide protective action by inhibiting MO growth  mouth + pharynx are also protected
by similarly acting flora.
NF maintains sensitive balance w/ other MOs to prevent infection  disrupting this balance  risk of
acquiring infection.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to superinfection bc they eliminate NF as well, thereby 
body’s defences & allowing disease-producing MOs to .
b. Describe unique body system defenses against infection.
Organ systems have unique defence mechanisms, physiologically suited to organ system structure
+ fxn. Skin, respiratory + GI tract are easily accessible to MOs. Example:
Respiratory tract  airways lined w/ cilia that beat mucus to move adherent or trapped organism
back up to pharynx for removal.
*Conditions that impair an organ’s specialized defence mechanism  risk of infection.
c. Describe how inflammation protects the body against infection.
Inflammation = cellular response to injury or infection  vascular rxn that delivers fluid, blood
products + nutrients to interstitial tissues in affected area. This process neutralizes & eliminates
pathogens + necrotic tissues, and allows for tissue repair.
Inflammatory response may be triggered by MOs, chemical (internal or external irritants) or
physical agents (mechanical trauma, extreme temperatures, radiation).
 Involves a well-coordinated series of events:
1. Vascular + cellular response
2. Formation of inflammatory exudates (fluid or cells discharged fr. cells or blood vessels -
e.g., serum or pus)
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