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Study Guide

PHL 333 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Thrasymachus, Square Enix Europe, Speedstep
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12 Pages
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Winter 2017

Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL 333
Professor
Sasa Stankovic
Study Guide
Midterm

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Ryerson
PHL 333
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Plato’s Repuli (Part 1) Jan 16, 2017
Introduction to Plato & His Ideas
Born into an influential family
Influenced heavily by Socrates, who:
o Philosophically questioned people about what they were experts on, ie, asking a lawyer
what law or justice is
o Challenged the youth to question authority (and was later charged and executed for
iitig a upisig
o “tood up fo the seah fo tuth/piiple at the ost of his life
Theme of something appearing to be, vs. it actually being
o Ie, social media allowing people to appear happy and rich and successful, when the
reality is student debt and depression and joblessness
o Questioig hat Beig is, if thigs ae ostatl hagig ad thee udefiale
“oethig a ol e defied as it is if it is unchanging; if it is changing, it
ust e defied as it is eoig
o Acknowledgement of two realities: the physical and metaphysical; senses v. ideas
What is Virtue & can it be taught? Disussed i Plato’s dialogue etee “oates ad Meo
o Plato begins the dialogue ith Meo askig “oates ith a itue e
auied/taught? poptig “oates to the ask, hat is itue?
o We a’t ask the fist uestio ithout fist defiig itue, ut a’t tul defie itue
because the concept is constantly changing
o Meo gies eaples of itue fo e, it is leadig a solid politial life; fo oe, it’s
tending to the household), but Socrates challenges this ou a’t defie soethig 
examples
o Eaples do’t defie the ualit, the shae the ualit; in providing an example
instead of a definition, the knowledge of what exactly the quality is is lost
Eidos: the fo of the thig that allos us to eogize it, ie, e eogize a hai/a/lothig
because of the common form that we connect with our preconceived idea of such objects
One can be led to believe a certain definition or goodness/badness of a thing based on the
perceived purposes of that thing (is, justice restricts our freedom and happiness)
Plato’s Repuli
Begins with Plato arguing with Thrasymachus about the goodness of justice, but Thrasymachus
gives up the argument pretty quick
Glauo, usatisfied ith Plato’s ase, igs the aguet ak up i the hopes of a oe
convincing one
Plato and Glaucon categorize justice into the fiest of the thee kids of good
o Good i itself: those thigs hih ig tepoa happiess ut do’t podue
anything that benefits further than itself (ie, drinking/partying, watching some movies,
eating candy)
o Good in itself and because of its fruit: it is enjoyable in itself, but also produces longer
lasting benefits (ie, reading/knowledge, shopping, listening to music); this is the
category Socrates places justice in
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o Good because of its fruit: those things which are difficult or upsetting to do, but yield
something that makes it worth it (ie, housework, studying); this is the category most
people place justice in
Glaucon challenges Socrates to show him how exactly justice is good in itself, not for the
benefits it later yields; he also challenges Socrates in how justice is good apart from its
appearance, arguing that all the good a person gets from being just is simply because of the
reputation of justness
o the geatest good fo a peso ould e to e ujust hile appeaig just
Glauo’s aguet begins:
o The Origin of Justice
People who have both inflicted and suffered injustice, but are too weak to inflict
injustice or protect themselves from it these people come to a compromise
Laws are created to prevent people from hurting one another, which (Glaucon
argues) means that everyone would hurt everyone if they could bypass the law
Also implies that law = justice, but is that really the case? Is there justice and
ijustie hee las do’t eist? Ho a e defie justie if it hages fo
place to place and time to time? How can something we build our whole lives,
countries, and systems on be so fluid and changing?
o Is Justice Good?
People act justly unwillingly
Story of Gyges of Lydia: found a ring that allowed him to become
invisible, subsequently seduced the Queen, murdered the King, and
took over the kingdom
o Those who live unjustly live better (as long as they remain uncaught/untried)
Glaucon begins a thought experiment to determine whether injustice or justice
is truly better in and of itself
The perfectly unjust person is completely unjust, but appears to be
completely just; if they are caught, they have the power, prestige, or
influence to defend themselves against all charges and still appear just;
this is to see the good i itself of injustice
The perfectly just person is completely just, but appears to be
opletel ujust; the ae aught ad tied ad totued ad
eeuted; this is to see the good i itself of justie
Glaucon concludes (for the sake of argument) that a person has no
reason to be just as it yields nothing for them, whereas a person has
every reason to be unjust (as long as they remain uncaught), because it
yields everything
Adeiatus’ agues futhe:
o Poets, politicians, teachers, and parents all praise justice, but only for the rewards of a
reputation (ie, good marriages, friends, repute)
o But justie aloe is’t eough fo a lot of people get , ad so e hae ujust people
appearing just
o Justice in itself appears to do no good for a person
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Description
Ryerson PHL 333 MIDTERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com Plato’s Repu▯li▯ (Part 1) Jan 16, 2017 Introduction to Plato & His Ideas  Born into an influential family  Influenced heavily by Socrates, who: o Philosophically questioned people about what they were experts on, ie, asking a lawyer what law or justice is o Challenged the youth to question authority (and was later charged and executed for ▯i▯▯iti▯g a▯ up▯isi▯g▯▯ o “tood up fo▯ ▯the sea▯▯h fo▯ t▯uth/p▯i▯▯iple▯ at the ▯ost of his life  Theme of something appearing to be, vs. it actually being o Ie, social media allowing people to appear happy and rich and successful, when the reality is student debt and depression and joblessness o Questio▯i▯g ▯hat ▯Bei▯g▯ is, if thi▯gs a▯e ▯o▯sta▯tl▯ ▯ha▯gi▯g a▯d the▯e u▯defi▯a▯le  “o▯ethi▯g ▯a▯ o▯l▯ ▯e defi▯ed as ▯it is▯ if it is unchanging; if it is changing, it ▯ust ▯e defi▯ed as ▯it is ▯e▯o▯i▯g▯ o Acknowledgement of two realities: the physical and metaphysical; senses v. ideas  What is Virtue & can it be taught? Dis▯ussed i▯ Plato’s dialogue ▯et▯ee▯ “o▯▯ates a▯d Me▯o o Plato begins the dialogue ▯ith Me▯o aski▯g “o▯▯ates ▯ith ▯▯a▯ ▯i▯tue ▯e a▯▯ui▯ed/taught?▯ p▯o▯pti▯g “o▯▯ates to the▯ ask, ▯▯hat is ▯i▯tue?▯ o We ▯a▯’t ask the fi▯st ▯uestio▯ ▯ithout fi▯st defi▯i▯g ▯i▯tue, ▯ut ▯a▯’t t▯ul▯ defi▯e ▯i▯tue because the concept is constantly changing o Me▯o gi▯es e▯a▯ples of ▯i▯tue ▯fo▯ ▯e▯, it is leadi▯g a solid politi▯al life; fo▯ ▯o▯e▯, it’s tending to the household), but Socrates challenges this – ▯ou ▯a▯’t defi▯e so▯ethi▯g ▯▯ examples o E▯a▯ples do▯’t defi▯e the ▯ualit▯, the▯ sha▯e the ▯ualit▯; in providing an example instead of a definition, the knowledge of what exactly the quality is is lost  Eidos: ▯the fo▯▯ of the thi▯g▯ that allo▯s us to ▯e▯og▯ize it, ie, ▯e ▯e▯og▯ize a ▯hai▯/▯a▯/▯lothi▯g because of the common form that we connect with our preconceived idea of such objects  One can be led to believe a certain definition or goodness/badness of a thing based on the perceived purposes of that thing (is, justice restricts our freedom and happiness) Plato’s Repu▯li▯  Begins with Plato arguing with Thrasymachus about the goodness of justice, but Thrasymachus gives up the argument pretty quick  Glau▯o▯, u▯satisfied ▯ith Plato’s a▯s▯e▯, ▯▯i▯gs the a▯gu▯e▯t ▯a▯k up i▯ the hopes of a ▯o▯e convincing one  Plato and Glaucon categorize justice into the ▯fi▯est▯ of the th▯ee ki▯ds of good o Good i▯ itself: those thi▯gs ▯hi▯h ▯▯i▯g te▯po▯a▯▯ happi▯ess ▯ut do▯’t p▯odu▯e anything that benefits further than itself (ie, drinking/partying, watching some movies, eating candy) o Good in itself and because of its fruit: it is enjoyable in itself, but also produces longer lasting benefits (ie, reading/knowledge, shopping, listening to music); this is the category Socrates places justice in find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Good because of its fruit: those things which are difficult or upsetting to do, but yield something that makes it worth it (ie, housework, studying); this is the category most people place justice in  Glaucon challenges Socrates to show him how exactly justice is good in itself, not for the benefits it later yields; he also challenges Socrates in how justice is good apart from its appearance, arguing that all the good a person gets from being just is simply because of the reputation of justness o ▯the g▯eatest good fo▯ a pe▯so▯▯ ▯ould ▯e to ▯e u▯just ▯hile appea▯i▯g just  Glau▯o▯’s a▯gu▯e▯t begins: o The Origin of Justice  People who have both inflicted and suffered injustice, but are too weak to inflict injustice or protect themselves from it – these people come to a compromise  Laws are created to prevent people from hurting one another, which (Glaucon argues) means that everyone would hurt everyone if they could bypass the law  Also implies that law = justice, but is that really the case? Is there justice and i▯justi▯e ▯he▯e la▯s do▯’t e▯ist? Ho▯ ▯a▯ ▯e defi▯e justi▯e if it ▯ha▯ges f▯o▯ place to place and time to time? How can something we build our whole lives, countries, and systems on be so fluid and changing? o Is Justice Good?  People act justly unwillingly  Story of Gyges of Lydia: found a ring that allowed him to become invisible, subsequently seduced the Queen, murdered the King, and took over the kingdom o Those who live unjustly live better (as long as they remain uncaught/untried)  Glaucon begins a thought experiment to determine whether injustice or justice is truly better in and of itself  The perfectly unjust person is completely unjust, but appears to be completely just; if they are caught, they have the power, prestige, or influence to defend themselves against all charges and still appear just; this is to see the ▯good i▯ itself▯ of injustice  The perfectly just person is completely just, but appears to be ▯o▯pletel▯ u▯just; the▯ a▯e ▯▯aught▯ a▯d t▯ied a▯d to▯tu▯ed a▯d e▯e▯uted; this is to see the ▯good i▯ itself▯ of justi▯e  Glaucon concludes (for the sake of argument) that a person has no reason to be just as it yields nothing for them, whereas a person has every reason to be unjust (as long as they remain uncaught), because it yields everything  Adei▯a▯tus’ a▯gues fu▯the▯: o Poets, politicians, teachers, and parents all praise justice, but only for the rewards of a reputation (ie, good marriages, friends, repute) o But justi▯e alo▯e is▯’t e▯ough fo▯ a lot of people get ▯▯, a▯d so ▯e ha▯e u▯just people appearing just o Justice in itself appears to do no good for a person find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Plato’s Repu▯li▯ (Part 2) Jan 20, 2017  Process of defining the goodness of justice apart from its consequences on society  Begin by defining justice according to the parts of the city & relationships between said parts o Producers, military, and rulers have their own natures, roles, and functions in a society o Justice is each part doing according to its designated role o Injustice is one or more parts rebelling against their role and usurping another  In the same way, the soul has individual parts with individual roles and responsibilities  Questions: How many parts are there to the human soul? Are the parts of the soul truly independent of each other?  The Appetitive Irrational Part: o Every human has things they desire (food, drink, sex, warmth, cool) o Every appetite has a natural object (thirst for drink, hunger for food) o An appetite for a specific object is induced by the environment, not a result of the soul  The Calculative Rational Part: o Every human has a part of the soul that calculates what is good for the person and their life o In a just person, the rational part rules over the appetitive part, preventing the appetitive part from engaging in damaging behaviour (ie, overeating, drinking too much, overdose) o This rational part can be taken over by the irrational part  this is indicative of a damaged soul o Rational part can agree with the irrational if the appetite is for a good object (ie, having an appetite for knowledge, truth, justice)  The Spirited Part: o Every human has emotion and conscience, which allies itself with the rational part o This part is content if the rational part is satisfied, but rouses itself if the rational part is not satisfied  if human does something wrong, the conscience is aroused o In a damaged soul, the spirited part may not ally itself with reason, or may remain silent during damaging behaviour  Socrates and Glaucon conclude that the innate goodness of justice is found in the goodness it has for the soul o Injustice produces illness and disease in the soul, whereas justice produces health and wholeness for the soul o Injustice may appear fruitful and good for the individual from the outside, but Socrates showed how damaging it truly is for the soul Aristotle’s Ni▯o▯a▯hea▯ Ethi▯s ▯Book 1▯ Jan 23, 2017 Intro to Aristotle  Student of Plato  best student, questioned his teacher  Founded the Lyceum School  I▯flue▯▯ed ast▯o▯o▯y, logi▯, physi▯s, ▯iology, ethi▯s, politi▯s, et▯… to the p▯ese▯t day  Idea of ▯e▯e▯ythi▯g st▯i▯i▯g to▯a▯ds its ▯atu▯al e▯d▯  The u▯ity of all ideas ▯o▯ ▯fo▯▯s▯▯ is the good find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Nicomachean Ethics  E▯e▯ythi▯g’s ▯atu▯al e▯d is good, ▯ut the▯e a▯e hie▯a▯▯hies of good o The blacksmith, bridle-maker, horseshoe-person, soldiers – all their natural ends/goods fall under the general o Jobs in a society all fall under the political leader, whether their purpose is to support or overturn the leader  So if the natural end of society is whatever the political leader decides, what is the natural end/good of human life?  Humans can only find fulfillment within a society  “o▯iety’s good/end is human good – happiness!  What is happiness? o Not pleasure  i▯ A▯istotle’s ▯i▯d, pleasu▯e o▯ly ▯akes you a sla▯e to it o Not honour  this can only be bestowed by someone of even greater virtue; in addition, the attribute of being honorable is only enjoyable if it is acknowledged; you only work for honor to be acknowledged o Not money  it is▯’t a▯ e▯d, it si▯ply leads to ▯o▯e; ▯o▯ey itself fulfills so▯ethi▯g, does not provide an end  Attributes of Happiness: o Complete: sought for no reason other than itself  recall the three kinds of good: happiness is the first, in that the most complete kind of a thing is one in which it is good for no more than it simply is (Good without qualification) o Self-Sufficient: there is no real desire for anything else but to seek this thing which provides happiness; happiness in itself is completely satisfying o Most Choiceworthy: no matter what the other options, this is most preferable  Arguments: o Work/function provides happiness: not the job/career of individual humans, but the purpose of humans as humans  Is the function of a human survival? No; all orga
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