POL 128 (Politics and Film) - Final Exam Notes

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Politics and Public Administration
POL 128
Laurinda Hartt- Fournier

POL 128 – Final Exam Notes Ethnographiable vs. Historifiable In the process of decolonization, we see the people who were ethnographiable are now writing the history, tells the history of Canada through the point of view of Elijah Harper and First Nations  Historifiable people: Are the ones that USED to be the ones in Ethnographiable  Ethnographiable people are now writing the history...  What’s the point of view, who’s the Historifiable people in Elijah? It won’t be the white people, IT WILL BE THE FIRST NATIONS (Elijah: Aboriginals, Kanehsthahwa: Mohawks)  White people are treating as Aliens Historifiable: Traditionally, it was white, anglo-saxophone, heterosexual male  If you didn’t fit in this category you were considered an ‘other’  BUT with Elijah we get the point that THEY are the ones who are writing history  History of Canada from the Aboriginal point of view (done with humour, style, and flare)  In Elijah the Historifiable voice is the Aboriginal people of Canada  When White people are presented they are considered strange, all the things in the media First Nations people have been portrayed as when the White man was making the films  This is an example of formerly ethnographiable group, defined by white histories, as marginal, as others, as alien, is now telling the history, o The Historifiable view of the aboriginal, the white people are ethnographiablized o How white people babble, white women say good bye to their husbands at the same time, showing how Aboriginals were represented by the whites Ideological Voice: The voice we heard very little from. It is the perspective conveyed in a film that is particularly that we have heard little of... (Ex: LGBT community, in a society that has ‘othered’ them) Les Ordres  One of the guards say “Au revoir” and Clermont interprets it as saying “See you later” and he replies as “You will never see me again”  Connotatively he has his ideological power/voice back when he leaves the prison  The voice is the point of view of culture that experienced terrible loss of human rights, terrible loss of colonized from British Elijah  Aboriginals of Canada (more male perspective) Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance  Mohawk people In the Shadow of Gold Mountain  Female, Chinese nurse.fighter.boy  African (Black) Canadians – the non-stereotyped side “Taking back” (Decolonization) and “Returning the gaze” (of the colonizers) as decolonizing tools (Relates to using the tools that the colonizers used against them to their advantage...) Colonization: Born out of what happened in the world in the 1500’s when nations sent explorers out into the wilderness, they weren’t just discovers, they were the forerunners of colonizers, the goals of then nations was to discover countries and have the most power o Regarding ideological colonization; Colonization of the entertainment industry with the American presence o Active Colonization: Take over someone’s country and push them aside (render them marginalized) – hegemonic view o Echo of colonization of what was experienced in the 1700’s where New France was given to the British—The French were the first to be in charge Decolonization (taking back): It’s not JUST standing up for your rights, it means using the tool of the colonizer to regain who you are, to throw off colonization, using the term INDIAN to describe yourself, taking the colonizer term of INDIAN and being proud to call yourself that (something taking something that colonized you and oppressed you) Exclusion Act  In Shadow of the Gold Karen Cho is also taking back JULY 1 when it was the day we became a st Confederation/Nation, on July 1 1923, the exclusion act made a statement about who really didn’t belong in Canada Elijah  Major form of taking back, THEY are writing the history The Chinese Exclusion Act (1923), repealed in 1947 (why and with what result?) Effective July 1 1923 on Dominion Day, the Chinese were the first and only people in Canada to be excluded because of race – no Chinese were allowed to enter (immigrate) to Canada after the 1923 act  1923 stopped the head tax because they excluded the Chinese from entering Canada unless you were a doctor or proved you had a future (poor were excluded) The reason for its repeal was when the Chinese enlisted in the Army to show the government their loyalty and dedication to Canada – they knew after coming back from the war against Japan they would have solid credentials and demand their rights and privileges in the country. Only after the war was when many families were re-united, immigrants did not have to live in fear of being deported and in general Chinese were treated as actual citizens. The Campaign for Redress The idea behind the campaign was demanding an apology from the Canadian government and redress for the effects of the Chinese Immigration Acts. Head tax payers wanted compensation for not only the large sum of money (equivalent to 1 billion dollars) that was taken away but the tearing apart of families, where families never grew up together as a ‘family.’  Effort to get the government to apologize for the policy that was clearly racist and get them to return some if not all of the money from the Head-Tax The Meech Lake Accord Regarded as a set of constitutional agreements where Quebec received their own powers with respect to immigration, rights to veto, language (bilingualism) and being recognized as a ‘distinct society’ in Canada. (It essentially wanted to give Quebec language rights, power to veto any changes in the future constitution and to be respected as a distinct nation in Canada – 3 things Natives have been asking for over 200 years). Because the accord would have changed the constitution's amending formula, it needed the unanimous consent of all provincial and federal legislative houses before being proclaimed into law. It failed to be ratified in the Manitoba Legislative Assembly when Elijah Harper filibustered until the Manitoba government's self-imposed deadline expired. Once it became clear that the Manitoba Legislative Assembly would not pass the resolution, the Newfoundland House of Assembly also abandoned debate on the accord. The accord was approved by the other eight provinces and the federal houses. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom (1982)  When Trudeau embedded in it, it was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights  Example of power, using it as a basis of their own Human Rights Charter and then it does become law  It began what happened in the Shadow of Gold Mountain Indian Residential School System:  Existed since the 1849s  Ran by the churches, educating the children in how to be ‘white’ and Canadian  Government under John A. MacDonald  Last government funded school closed in 1996  Policy referred to as the “I.R.S.” – one of the darkest parts of Canadian history  In some schools the mortality rate could be up to 60%, the reason the movie said 50% is because that’s how it FEELS from the aboriginal perspective, it feels half the children died, there were children who entered that school that DISAPPEARED Prime Minister Stephen Harper (and his apologies Aboriginal Canadians)  June 11 , 2008 – Stephen Harper read an apology for this government policy that he had nothing to do with but as a representative of the government; o This loss of culture continued for centuries, hair was cut, couldn’t speak their language o Government RSA, speaking on behalf of 100 years of government. What postponed this was “Well it wasn’t our policy...” o Truth and reconciliation tribute? o The government which I represent, failed here and WE the government now take responsibility o The frequent reference to the ISA of family and how it was destroyed in this way Prime Minister Stephen Harper (and his apologies to Chinese Canadians) Apology made on June 22nd, 2006 – wanted to make sure to do it before July 1st (Canada day) after Harper was elected as Prime Minister, it was a part of his campaign to apologize and redress the Chinese Canadians who suffered from the head tax.  Who apologized in 2006? Stephen Harper made on behalf of the government o No matter the political party, he recognized the need for an apology done by the government of Canada, he also announced for $20,000 for all head tax payers and their families (there were only 20 still alive) “For over six decades, these malicious measures, aimed solely at the Chinese, were implemented with deliberation by the Canadian state,” said the Prime Minister. ”This was a grave injustice, and one we are morally obligated to acknowledge.” “We have the collective responsibility to build a country based firmly on the notion of equality of opportunity, regardless of one’s race or ethnic origin,” concluded the Prime Minister. In response to the Prime Minister’s apology, Canadian Heritage Minister Beverley Oda remarked, “With today’s apology the Government is following through on its promise to the Chinese-Canadian community, one which was subjected to a unique situation. My Department will work hard in the coming months and years to strengthen the sense of inclusion of Chinese-Canadians, and indeed of all communities in Canada.” UNDRIP (United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples) (Adopted by the United Nations in 2007)  In 2007, the UN came up with a declaration specifically for indigenous people  US, Canada, New Zealand and Australia didn’t sign off at first, within the next three years each of them did agree to support this document – by 2010 all of them have signed off o Terrible history in treatment of indigenous people, they had plans to eliminate or marginalize indigenous people  “Peoples” refers to different groups within the Indigenous (different cultures or people) Prime Minister Trudaeu’s repatriation of the Canadian Constitution (the British North Americ
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